World War Ebooks Catalog
Stricted to shallow-water use and carried with it the potential danger of oxygen toxicity, its design had reached a suitably high level of efficiency by World War II. During the war, combat swimmer breathing units were widely used by navies on both sides of the conflict. The swimmers used various modes of underwater attack. Many notable successes were achieved including the sinking of several battleships, cruisers, and merchant ships. 1-3.5.2 U.S. Combat Swimming. There were two groups of U.S. combat swimmers during World War II Naval beach reconnaissance swimmers and U.S. operational swimmers. Naval beach reconnaissance units did not normally use any breathing devices, although several models existed. U.S. operational swimmers, however, under the Office of Strategic Services, developed and applied advanced methods for true self-contained diver-submersible operations. They employed the Lambertsen Amphibious Respiratory Unit (LARU), a rebreather invented by Dr. C.J. Lambertsen (see...
Dehydration was reported as a factor that increases the risk of DI during studies on aviators during World War II, and it is still considered a significant risk factor by the international diving and diving medical communities. The mechanism is however again unclear and reliable scientific evidence is missing. Changes in the surface tension in serum favoring bubble formation has been postulated as a possible mechanism. Alcohol ingestion prior to diving, also seems to be a risk factor - possibly due to dehydration.
A battlefield horror, gas gangrene, affected war wounds in around 5 of cases during World War 1 1 in World War 2and in 0.016 of cases during the Vietnam War20. Its current incidence is low, although there has been an increase over the last 20 years, due to the increase of road injuries, errors in prophylaxis and mostly due to surgical practice where one-step repair procedures tend to be used21. Current incidence is estimated at 0.1 to 0.4 cases per year per 100 000 inhabitants22. In our own area, we have treated 165 cases in 15 years - in a recruitment area of 5 million inhabitants (Lille, Northern France).
The theoretical basis underlying all mathematical models of acoustic propagation is the wave equation. The earliest attempts at modeling sound propagation in the sea were motivated by practical problems in predicting sonar performance in support of anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations during the Second World War. These early models used ray-tracing techniques derived from the wave equation to map those rays defining the major propagation paths supported by the prevailing marine environment. These paths could then be used to predict the corresponding sonar detection zones. This approach was a forerunner to the family of techniques now referred to as ray-theoretical solutions.
The propagation of sound in the sea has been studied intensely since the beginning of Second World War when it was recognized that an understanding of this phenomenon was essential to the successful conduct of anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations. These early measurements were quickly transformed into effective, albeit primitive, prediction tools. Naval requirements continue to motivate advances in all aspects of underwater acoustic modeling, particularly propagation modeling.
Upon seeing their first airplane in the 1930s, many of the residents of Papua New Guinea thought it was a heavenly bird. Later, during World War II, when they learned that airplanes often contain useful things such as pots, pans, Coca-Cola and Spam, many villages formed cargo cults, crafting facsimile airplanes and control towers out of bamboo and clearing runways in the jungle, hoping to entice the spirits into bringing more such good stuff their way. From muck dives to shark dives, from pristine reefs to historic World War II wrecks, PNG is unquestionably dive-trip-of-a-lifetime material. The underwater wonders are back-dropped by a country with 14,000-foot mountain ranges and valleys so remote that inhabitants there still speak more than 700 distinct languages. It's a place where the traveler can discover a commodity that is rare in modern times a genuine, honest-to-goodness, unfabricated adventure.
As their World War II predecessors before them, the salvors of HCU 1 left an impressive legacy of combat salvage accomplishments. HCU 1 salvaged hundreds of small craft, barges, and downed aircraft refloated many stranded U.S. Military and merchant vessels cleared obstructed piers, shipping channels, and bridges and performed numerous underwater repairs to ships operating in the combat zone.
This big girl was circling above the World War II shipwreck of the Caribsea. She was just one of overfifty sharks in the area that day. There was a lot of bait around her and it was difficult to get a clear shot of her head. FI4.5,11125th, ISO-320 Nikon D70S with Tokina 12-24mm lens 12mm, Single Iketite DS125 strobe set forTTL. (Centre) This photo was taken in January of this year on the World War I wreck site of the Schurz. To say that there was a lot of baitfish that day would be an understatement. FI51I125th, ISO-640. Nikon D70S with Tokina 12-24mm lens 20mm, Dual Ikelite DS125 strobes setfor TTL.
Japan took control of the Micronesian islands in 1914 and ruled them until the end of World War II. They built the islands in the Palau archipelago into progressive and productive communities that specialized in mining, agriculture and fisheries. When the war came, the islands were also heavily fortified militarily. The islands of Angaur and Peleliu were the settings for fierce battles the one on tiny Peleliu lasting for three bloody months.
I report on three very different kinds of aquariums. The first is the venerable Berlin Aquarium which we visited in the summer of 2002. Opened on 18 August 1913, the year before World War I, it is actually aquarium, terrarium, and insectarium all in one. Built adjacent to the Berlin Zoo smack in the city center, it is among the oldest aquariums in the world. Despite substantial rebuilding after World War II, its age shows in the somewhat constrained layout of its three floors. The main floor consists of what seems like hundreds of mostly smallish tanks, and the floors upstairs contain vast numbers of large and small terrariums, packed with reptiles, I ordered the video and it arrived last Monday. I've only had a chance to view it today. I was so profoundly moved (and I am a hard bitten first world war historian) that I had to email you.
According to Shneydor (1998), guidance is defined as The process for guiding the path of an object towards a given point, which in general may be moving. Also, the father of inertial navigation, Charles Stark Draper, states in (Draper 1971) that Guidance depends upon fundamental principles and involves devices that are similar for vehicles moving on land, on water, under water, in air, beyond the atmosphere within the gravitational field of earth and in space outside this field, see Fig. 2. Thus, guidance represents a basic methodology concerned with the transient motion behavior associated with the achievement of motion control objectives. The most rich and mature literature on guidance is probably found within the guided missile community. In one of the earliest texts on the subject (Locke 1955), a guided missile is defined as A space-traversing unmanned vehicle which carries within itself the means for controlling its flight path. Today, most people would probably think about...
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