+ Z [Yu (ulv - uli )(ulv - uli ) + Y (Wlv - Wli )( Wlv - Wli )] .

For expression convenience, we apply the following simplifications in the remainder of this chapter that dfp(Z,ab) = dfp(Z,ab)/3C:, gji = Z- %, = %v,k- %, and Z = Zp - Zt with

% = q, x, y , and ulvi = ulv - uli, y/lvi = Wh - Wn . As aforementioned, all virtual leaders have the same velocity and heading with the kinematics of Xvk = ulv coswlv and yvk = uh sinw v . Substituting (5) into (17) and further expanding it, we can get

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