Class Structure Q Method 0 Property

Fig. 15. Environment information class

The 3D Viewer is the component that displays the simulation process in 3D as seen in Fig. 16. The 3D viewer receives information from the environment manager as input and uses OpenGL to render the simulation process in 3D. OpenGL is the software interface to the graphical hardware allows the generation of objects or computations necessary in producing 3D applications. It can run on various hardware platforms but does not support commands with the ability to generate complex objects and can only generate primitives such as points, lines and polygons. For the representation of complex structures such as geography, obstacles and the autonomous underwater vehicle object, the primitives are combined to build the objects necessary for the simulation.

obstacle map uuv

Fig. 16. 3-D viewer for object obstacle map uuv

Fig. 16. 3-D viewer for object

The Collision Avoidance System, Collision Risk Computation System and the Simulation System were used together in the simulation to test the performance of the presented underwater vehicle's autonomous navigation. For the specifications necessary for the simulation, the autonomous underwater vehicle developed by the Korean Agency for Defense Development was used and is shown in Table 3.



Vehicle length/diameter

10 (ratio)

Max speed


Max operation depth


Displacement tonnage


Table 3. Specification of UUV

The underwater vehicle's autonomous navigation system was tested using a scenario where three dynamic obstacles exist. The autonomous underwater vehicle's starting point and destination point were set to S(0,0,-10) and G(0,210,-10), respectively. The first obstacles starting point and destination point were set to 0(-20),150,-10) and 0(13,-60-10), respectively, where it approaches the autonomous underwater vehicle from the front left side. The second obstacle approaches the autonomous underwater vehicle from the rear with the starting point and destination point set to 0(30,-10,-17) and 0(-2,160,-17), and the last obstacle approaches the UUV directly from the front with the starting point and destination point set to 0(0,200,-10) and 0(0,-20,-10), respectively. Fig. 17 shows the actual

Fig. 17. Display of simulation simulation in progress and Fig. 18 shows the results as a map to help understand the simulation results. As shown in the simulation results, the autonomous underwater vehicle detected the first approaching obstacle 0(-11,87,-10) at point P(0,63,-10) and sends an avoidance command to point P(7,84,-17), then continues to avoid the second obstacle 0(18, 58, -17) to point P(-7, 105, -24), and this confirmed that the collision avoidance performed reasonably and efficiently.

(b). Simulation result in view of [Y-Z] axis Fig. 18. Simulation result with scenarios

5. Conclusion

This paper designed a RVC intelligent system model that can be applied to various unmanned vehicles and the underwater vehicle's intelligent autonomous navigation system was designed consisting of a collision avoidance system, a navigation system and a collision risk computation based on a Virtual world system. During the development of the Virtual world system, several points such as the fusion of different techniques, preservation of system consistency, real time system processing etc. were taken into consideration, and since it models a client/server structure, it also has the features of consistency, independence maximization, and load balancing. The RVC intelligent system can be applied not only to autonomous underwater vehicles, but to various autonomous robots such as unmanned aerial vehicles, mobile robots and autonomous submarines. To test the performance of the underwater vehicle's intelligent autonomous navigation system based on this RVC intelligent system model, a 3D simulator was developed, and through a scenario with dynamic obstacles existing in the navigational environment, the validity of the intelligent autonomous navigation system was verified.

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