The propeller is represented by an actuator disk which creates across the propeller plane a pressure discontinuity of area Ap and axial flow velocity Up. The pressure drops to pa just before the disk and rises to pb just after and returns to free-stream pressure, pro, in the far wake. To hold the propeller rigid when it is extracting energy from the fluid, there must be a leftward thrust force T on its support, as shown in Fig. 1.
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