## T

Fig. 10. Open loop step responses for a) astatic and b) static system Astatic system

In this case we can observe the slope of the steady-state response, kss = lim£^+œ ^(t) and the velocity error, £v = lim£^+œ[^(t) — fcsst], Vukic & Kuljaca (2005). If a linear model (constant drag coefficient) is assumed, one degree of freedom of an underwater vehicle can be described with (12).

0$(t) + PM = T5(t) The solution of this system is given with (13)

The slope of the steady state response for this case is kss = j- and it can be determined from the experiments. Since the applied input is known, constant drag can be precisely calculated depending on the number of experiments. The velocity error for this case is Ev = — -^t.

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This first volume will guide you through the basics of Photoshop. Well start at the beginning and slowly be working our way through to the more advanced stuff but dont worry its all aimed at the total newbie.

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