In other words, step input and initial heading are known a priori, drag coefficient has been determined in the previous step, and velocity error can be determined from the response making it easy to calculate the inertia of the system.

If the system is described as nonlinear, i.e. with linear drag, then the SISO equation is

and the response is explicitly given with (15) (see Appendix A for derivation of the term).

The slope of the steady state response for this case is kss = Just as in the case before, linear drag coefficient can be calculated easily based on the known parameters. The velocity error for this case is £v = — sgn(r) ln 2. The result is similar as in the case with constant

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