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Fig. 7. HUGIN position accuracy with UTP and DVL aiding. Solid red: difference between UTP post-processed navigation solution and independent HiPAP USBL post-processed navigation solution. Red dashed: predicted position uncertainties in navigation system with UTP.

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Fig. 7. HUGIN position accuracy with UTP and DVL aiding. Solid red: difference between UTP post-processed navigation solution and independent HiPAP USBL post-processed navigation solution. Red dashed: predicted position uncertainties in navigation system with UTP.

When aiding the AUV with range measurements, the vehicle only needs one transducer. By using two vehicle mounted transducers, it is also possibly to obtain bearing measurements. The baseline (distance) between them should be as long possible (in principle this becomes a short baseline system, SBL). Similar to the range measurements, the bearing measurements are also tightly integrated with the INS, enhancing the overall accuracy even further. A possible development is to have the AUV deploy the transponders itself. Once deployed, the current generation of Kongsberg transponders have battery capacity for two to three years operation; upcoming transponders will have a battery capacity of five years. This way, the AUV will be able to deploy a trail of underwater acoustic buoys for UTP navigation. These transponders can also be used as acoustic communication relays. This concept can be denoted concurrent deployment and navigation (CDN).

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