Caudal Fin

Caudal Peduncle Placement on Vertebra 4

Fig. 6. Deformed Caudal Fin Coordinates

In order to determine a physically realistic pivot location, the length of the splines must be maintained, assuming there is no in-plane straining. The arc-length formula is used for this:

where xs is the coordinate of the starting point of the spline, xi is the endpoint of the spline in question and y is the defining function of the spline in question. The slope of the travelling wave is also needed, as follows:

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