This chapter mainly presents information of hardware devices utilized in the development of new underwater vehicles. Basic devices including a stereoscopic HDTV camera system, communication devices and methods under development, modern power sources, and data processing methods are described. Power sources are extremely important in underwater vehicle design. The recent trends of Lithium-ion batteries, which are better for small to midsize vehicles design, and fuel cells for large vehicles are introduced. Three vehicles developed in JAMSTEC incorporated the mentioned devices and their sea trial results are shown. The development purpose of these vehicles is different but the techniques and the devices were shared in the development of each vehicle. As was mentioned in the introduction, state of the art underwater vehicles will enable a whole ocean research. The configuration of multiple deployment small AUVs and a large LCAUV may be an effective operation style in the future. The improvement of fundamental devices is essential to realize this goal. In order to improve the survey of climate change, assessment of earthquakes, and ocean resources, the accelerated development of intelligent underwater vehicles is also expected.
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