In this chapter the authors have given an overview of some vision-based methods for determining mathematical models of underwater vehicles. The main reason why this type of methods was presented is the commercial availability of the equipment necessary to perform the experiments. Further on, we presented some methods for parameter estimation among which is the self-oscillation identification method. This method has proven to be very applicable in real conditions because of its insensitivity to external disturbance. In addition to that, the method includes simple calculations and is not time-consuming - only a couple of oscillations are enough to estimate the system parameters.

The next step is tuning the autopilots based on the simplified linear or nonlinear mathematical models of underwater vehicles. The IS-O method has already been applied for tuning autopilots of underwater vehicles and results are satisfactory. Further research will be concentrated on tuning higher level controllers using the presented new methods.

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