• Do not fasten closer than 3 inches from edge of concrete. Otherwise the concrete may crack allowing the fastener to ricochet and cause serious injury.

• Minimum recommended spacing between fasteners in concrete is 6 inches to prevent cracking and ricocheting.

• Concrete should be at least three times as thick as the fastener penetration (Table 2-6). Steel. A fastener driven into steel displaces the steel radially away from its shank. Elastic properties of the steel cause it to spring back and apply a high compressive load on the fastener that provides the holding power. Some examples of holding power of driven fasteners are provided in Table 2-7.

Increasing the shank diameter will increase the fastener's holding power as long as the steel thickness is sufficient to accept the fastener. The general rule of thumb is: minimum steel thickness = fastener shank diameter.

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