Electrical Potential - See "Galvanic Potential."

Electrolyte - A nonmetallic medium capable of conducting electricity by the movement of ions rather than electrons.

ERS - Electronic Ranging Systems.

ESSM - Emergency Ship Salvage Material: A Navy maintained pool of equipment used to support emergency ship salvage, ship husbandry, oil spill response, and diving. ESSM pools of equipment are located world-wide and are operated by the Naval Sea Systems Command, Code OOC. ESSM depots are located at Williamsburg, Virginia; Sasebo, Japan; Fort Wainright, Alaska; Stockton, California; and Singapore.

Explosive - A chemical substance that rapidly changes into a gas, creating heat and pressure.

External Charge - A charge placed external to, and usually in intimate contact with, the material to be blasted.

Fairlead - A rigging device such as a pulley which is used to change the direction of a hauling line.

Fender - A device, usually of wood, rubber, or rope, to prevent damage to a vessel or shore facility by impact or abrasion.

Ferromagnetic - Behaving like iron in a magnetic field.

Fish Plate - A timber plate that laps a joint or an area of a piling reduced by deterioration. It is secured to the sides so as to connect the members end to end or to strengthen them.

Float - A floating platform used for disembarking from a boat or working around waterfront structures.

Fouling - An accumulation of deposits, especially marine biological growth.

Fracture - The breaking of rock without movement of the broken pieces.

Fragmentation - The extent to which rock is broken into small pieces when blasted.

Freeboard - Distance between the deck of a floating vessel or buoy and the waterline.

Galvanic Corrosion - An accelerated form of corrosion occurring in an electrolyte when a pair of dissimilar metals capable of acting together as a source of electricity are in contact with each other.

Galvanic Potential - A quantity in an electrical field measured (in volts) with reference to some arbitrary level of potential, such as a reference electrode.

GDOP - Geometrical Dissolution of Position.

GFD - Ground Fault Detector and circuit interrupter: Electrical equipment used to detect the occurrence of electrical leakage in electrical cables and to shut down the power when safe current levels are exceeded. Electrical equipment used by divers underwater must be protected with an approved trip device if the voltage exceeds 7.5 volts for AC and 30 volts for DC. See Appendix D.

GFI - Ground Fault Interrupter.

GPS - Global Positioning System: A navi gation system that acquires ranges from three or more satellites to determine position.

Granular Soil - A soil that consists of discrete, easily separable particles.

Gravity Wall - A massive structure that obtains stability through its own weight.

Groin - A narrow structure projecting out, usually close to right angles, from the shoreline. It is designed to influence offshore currents and wave action in a manner that will minimize erosion of the shoreline.

Ground Leg - A distinct portion of the ground tackle system of a fleet mooring.

Ground Ring - Steel ring resting at or near bottom at low tide to which riser chain and ground legs of a fleet mooring are secured.

Ground Tackle - The anchors, chain, and other supporting equipment used to secure a buoy in a specific location.

Grout - Traditionally, a mixture of portland cement and fine aggregate to which is added enough water to make a fluid mixture. Epoxy-resin grouts are also widely available.

Gunite - See "Shotcrete."

Harbor - In general, a sheltered arm of the sea, easily accessible to maritime routes in which ships may seek refuge, transfer cargo, or undergo repair.

Hawsepipe - A cast-iron or steel pipe placed in the bow or stern of a ship or center of a buoy for the anchor chains or tension bar to pass through.

Hockle - A tight loop formed in a cable due to twisting or torquing the cable.

Holiday - A small hole in a coated surface arising from imperfect application.

Hose Charge - A flexible linear charge consisting of a core of explosive surrounded by an outer skin or hose.

Inclinometer - A measuring tool for obtaining angles of inclination of mooring chains and tube installations.

Increment Borer - A tool for extracting a small plug from a timber element.

Internal Charge - A charge placed inside of the material to be blasted, usually by means of boreholes that penetrate into the material.

Jetty - A structure (such as a mound or wall) at or near the entrance to a harbor or river constructed to confine the flow of water due to currents and tides and to maintain the entrance free of sandbars.

Jewelry - Connecting hardware on a buoy or mooring.

Kellett - Weight added to an anchor line to help depress the line and reduce the angle of the line with the seafloor.

Kerf - The width of the cut produced during a cutting process.

Kevlar - Trade name for DuPont aramid fiber, which is used to make high strength, low stretch rope and fabrics.

Land Mark - Any readily available target that can be plotted with a high degree of accuracy.

LBL - Long Baseline Systems.

Line Charge - A charge with its length much greater than its diameter that, when detonated, acts as if the explosive energy comes from a line rather than a point.

Magnetometer - An instrument that can detect magnetic materials.

Marine Borer - Any of a number of species of organism in seawater that attacks untreated or poorly treated wood; especially active in warm waters.

Mass Anchor - A stabilizing technique that works by virtue of weight and the resulting friction against the seafloor. Typical mass anchors are split pipe, concrete, and chain.

Mill Scale - Oxide layer formed on iron and steel when heated for rolling, forging, or other processing.

MLW - Mean Low Water.

Mole - A rubble-mound structure that extends outward from shore into the navigable water of a harbor. Generally, the level top is appreciable in area and contains paved roads, railroads, and crane trackage.

Molten Weld Pool - The liquid state of a weld prior to solidification as weld metal. Also referred to as puddle.

Mooring - System of anchors, chain, buoy, and their accessories used to secure ships temporarily in a fixed location.

Mound - An artificial embankment or ridge composed of sand, gravel, and cobbles and constructed on the ocean floor by dumping the material from scows and barges.

MSL - Mean Sea Level.

NDT - Nondestructive Testing.

Neat - A grout formulation without the addition of aggregates.

NEC - NaVy Enlisted Classification.

Noncohesive Soil - A soil that resists deformation by the mechanical interlocking of its particles (gravel, sand, silt).

Null - Low or zero scale.

OPDS - Offshore Petroleum Discharge System.

Optical - Referring to survey methods using instruments aiding sight, such as theodolites and transits.

OTDR - Optical Time Domain Reflecto-meter: An electro-optic instrument used to measure light transmission (attenuation) in fiber optic cables.

Overbend Region - For a cable or pipeline deployed from a surface vessel, the transition of the cable from horizontal on deck to near vertical in the water column is called the overbend region.

Overburden - Soil that is above another strata of soil or an object.

Oxidation - The process of combining with oxygen; burning.

Oxygen Arc Cutting - An oxygen cutting process used to sever metals by means of the chemical reaction of oxygen with the base metal at elevated temperatures. The necessary temperature is maintained by an arc between a consumable tubular electrode and the base metal.


Padeye - A small, usually round opening that is an edgewise projection of a plate attached to a structure for use as a point of attachment.

that is applied in the performance of a proof test. Usually the value of proof load is equal to ISO to 200 percent of the rated load value.

PDP - Pile-Driven Plate Anchor.

Pier - An open- or closed-type structure usually extending perpendicularly from the shore into sheltered navigable water, designed for berthing, loading or unloading cargo, repair, fueling, and general servicing of vessels. It normally provides berthing space on both sides for its entire length.

Pile - A long, slender timber, steel, or reinforced concrete structural element driven, jetted, or otherwise embedded into the ground to support a vertical load, to resist a lateral force, or to resist water or earth pressure.

Plane Table - A surveying tool consisting of a drawing board mounted on a tripod so that the board can be leveled and rotated horizontally without disturbing the tripod.

Point Charge - A charge with its length no more than two or three diameters; when detonated it acts as if the explosion energy comes from a single point.

Port - An expanded opening in a crack that allows grout to be introduced into the crack.

Potable - Suitable for drinking.

Probing Bar - A small diameter steel bar used to penetrate the seabed to locate buried objects.

Proof Load - The average force to which an item may be subjected before visual permanent deformation occurs or a force

Proof Test - A term designating a tensile test applied to the item for the sole purpose of detecting injurious defects in the material or manufacture.

Quarrystone - A diamond or square cut stone.

Quaywall - A heavy structure fronting on navigable water, and parallel to the shore, behind which earth fill is placed. Its function is to act as a bulkhead as well as to provide for berthing of vessels or other service.

Ramping - A technique used in underwater or on-land demolition to remove steep vertical cliffs and provide a smooth transition for installation of electrical cables.

Rated Load Value - The maximum recommended load that should be exerted on the item. The following terms are also used for the term rated load: SWL," "Safe Working Load," "Working Load," "Working Load Limit," and the "Resultant Safe Working Load." All rated load values, unless noted otherwise, are for in-line pull with respect to the centerline of the item.

Reference Electrode - A single electrode that, when immersed in an electrolyte solution, produces a fixed, known electrical potential; it is used as a standard for the measurement of potential differences.

Retrojet - A balancing jet used on some underwater high pressure waterjet cleaning nozzles.

Riprap - Stones or boulders of miscellaneous size placed without order on the surface of an earthen structure or embankment to act as protection against erosion.

Riser Chain - Vertical chain extending from a ground ring upward to a mooring buoy.

Rope - A line, a long flexible assembly of steel wires or fiber yarns, twisted, braided, or bundled together to serve as a tensile strength member.

Rope Charge - A linear charge made up of a number of small charges, such as dynamite sticks, fastened lengthwise along a piece of rope.

Rubble - Rough and uncut stones, irregularly shaped and of various sizes, ranging up to 1,000 ft3 each and up to 90 tons each.

Sacrificial Anode - An anode that supplies its own electrons for cathodic protection, thereby consuming or "sacrificing" itself.

Safety Factor - An industry term denoting theoretical reserve capability. Usually computed by dividing the catalog stated ultimate load by the catalog stated working load limit and generally expressed as a ratio, for example, 5 to 1.

Sagbend Region - For a cable or pipeline deployed from a surface vessel, the transition of the cable from nearly vertical in the water column to horizontal on the seafloor is referred to as the sagbend region.

SALM - Single Anchor Leg Mooring.

Seawall - A massive gravity-type structure built along, and generally parallel to, the shoreline; designed to protect the shore against erosion resulting from wave action.

Shackle - A chain-joining link.

Shaped Charge - An explosive charge formed with a conical-shaped cavity at one end designed to increase penetration.

Sheave - A wheel with a groove on its perimeter used to guide a rope.

Ship Heave Compensator - A large pneumatic/hydraulic spring with sheaves at both ends of the spring to compensate for the effect of ship deck heave motion.

Shock Load - A resulting load or force from the rapid change of movement, such as impacting or jerking, of a static load. A shock load is generally significantly greater than the static load.

Shot - Fifteen-fathom (90 feet) length of chain.

Shotcrete - Shotcrete (or gunite) is a concrete that is pneumatically placed in layers usually from 1 to 2 inches. Water is mechanically added to the dry mixture at the nozzle, that shoots the freshly mixed concrete (really a mortar) at the surface prepared for its reception.

Sinker - A weight, usually concrete, attached to a mooring leg to remove direct tension from the anchor, to absorb impact loading, to control chain movement near the anchor, and to localize chain wear.

Sloughing - Slippage of the slope of an embankment or excavation.

Slump - A measure of the fluid consistency of a concrete sample as measured in a slump test cone. The higher the slump, the wetter the mixture.

Slurry - A thin liquid cement.

SLWT - Side-Loadable Warping Tug.

Snake Hole - A hole drilled or bored under a rock or tree stump for placing explosives.

Spacing - The linear distance between centers of boreholes, usually measured along the long axis of the cut.

Spalling - Deterioration of a concrete surface usually caused by the expansion of rusting reinforcing steel.

Spider - A steel plate or casting with three or more holes to join several chains.

Stake Piles - Steel piling anchors driven vertically into a firm bottom.

Stemming - Material placed in the top of a borehole to seal off escaping gases and to reduce noise from the detonation of explosives in the hole.

Stop Log - A steel plate normally installed across the intake opening of a drydock, providing a secondary seal for the sluice gates inside the flooding tunnel.

Stringer - A horizontal framing member used to support a floor or deck.

Stud - The center cross bar in a steel chain link.

Subbottom Profiler - An instrument used to determine the layering of seabed soils by measuring acoustic echoes.

Syntactic Foam - A foam composed of hollow spheres in a resin matrix.

Tremie - A steel tube used for depositing concrete underwater, having at its upper end a hopper for filling.

Triangulation - A surveying technique for horizontal control based on the geometric proposition that if one side and the angles of a triangle are known, the remaining sides can be computed.

Trilateration - A surveying technique for horizontal control based on the geometric proposition that if the three sides of a triangle are known, the three angles can be computed.

UEFD - Underwater Electric Field Detector: Hand-held device used by divers to detect the presence of stray electrical field underwater. See Appendix D.

Ultimate Load - The average load or force at which the item fails or no longer supports a load.

Ultrasonic - Sound with a pitch that is above the upper limit of human hearing. Ultrasonic thickness gage uses ultrasonic sound waves to measure thickness.

Ultrasonic Testing - High frequency sound readings to determine voids in landfills, flaws in welds, etc.

Ultrathermic Electrode - An electrode used for oxygen arc cutting that is made up of seven small rods within a steel tube. One of these rods will continue to burn after the current is switched off.

USGS - United States Geological Survey.

UTM - Universal Transverse Mercator.

UWMT - Underwater Magnetic Particle Testing: Equipment used to detect the presence of cracks in magnetic materials.

Wale - A long, horizontal structural member of timber or steel used for bracing vertical members. Also known as "waler" or "ranger."

Wharf - An open-type marginal platform structure, usually parallel to the shoreline, that is used primarily for berthing of vessels. It is usually connected to the shore at more than one point but may also have continuous access along the shore. It ordinarily provides berthing along the outboard face.

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