3.4.1 Types of Steel Structures
Structural steel is used in most metal waterfront structures because it is strong, readily available, easily fabricated into any shape, and not excessively costly. In marine applications, steel has many uses as a construction material. Steel piles, either H-piles or pipe piles, are used as support members for open piers, wharves, and other waterfront structures and facilities. Steel sheet piling is used primarily as a retaining wall structure for bulkheads used in the support of piers, wharves, drydocks, and quaywalls as well as near-water, earth-retaining structures. Fabricated structural steel members, whether tubular, plate, or other shapes, are used to construct undersea support towers for testing ranges, instrument arrays, and operation support platforms.
3.4.2 Deterioration of Steel Structures
There are six major types and causes of steel structure deterioration in the marine environment:
• Loosening of structural connections
• Loss of foundation material
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