S

Anchor lines to seafloor

Floating Pontoon (Wharf)

Storage or fixed equipment beyond

Upper deck Shear wall

Spud piles to ocean floor

Storage or fixed equipment beyond

Upper deck Shear wall

> Lower deck

Spud piles to ocean floor

Spud well

> Lower deck

Cell fender

Spud well

Floating Two-Story (Pier)

Figure 3-5. Floating pier.

(c) Fender piles absorb the impact of berthing ships.

(d) Sheet piling is used with various waterfront facilities to retain fill.

3.2.1.3 Wharves and Quaywalls. Wharves are docks which are oriented approximately parallel to the shore and are connected to shore along their entire length. The retaining structure used to contain the backfill is commonly referred to as the quaywall or bulkhead. Several types of these structures are shown in Figure 3-7.

3.2.1.4 Fender Systems. Fender systems are used on piers to protect the ship and the pier during berthing operations and while the ship is moored. On relatively inflexible piers and wharves the fender acts as a buffer in absorbing or dissipating the impact energy of the ship without damaging the ship. Where ships are berthed against pile-supported structures, protection of the strac-

Bethlehem Standard Sheet Piling

Sections designed for bending strength

16.1"

16.1"

Sections designed for interlock strength

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