Pipelines 619

6.3.1 Pipeline Design 6-19

6.3.2 Pipeline Hydraulics 6-20

6.3.3 Wall Thickness Determination 6-20

6.3.4 Hydrodynamic Stability 6-21

6.3.5 Route Selection 6-21

6.3.6 nstallation Methods and Equipment 6-22

6.3.6.1 Bottom Pull 6-24

6.3.6.3 Off-Bottom Tow 6-25

6.3.6.4 Surface Tow 6-27

6.3.6.5 Below-Surface Tow 6-27

6.3.6.9 Directional Drilling 6-30

6.3.7 Material Selection 6-31

6.3.7.2 Cast Iron Pipe 6-37

6.3.7.3 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 6-37

6.3.7.4 High Density Polyethylene (HDP) 6-37

6.3.7.5 Fiberglass 6-37

6.3.7.6 Flexible Pipe 6-37

6.3.7.7 Collapsible Hose 6-38

6.3.7.8 Oil Suction and Discharge Hose 6-38

6.3.7.9 Concrete 6-38

6.3.7.10 POL Pipelines 6-38

6.3.7.11 Lined Pipe 6-38

6.3.7.12 Pipe Bundles 6-38

6.3.8 Pipe Joint Types 6-39

6.3.8.1 Pipe Flange 6-39

6.3.8.2 Threaded Coupling 6-39

6.3.8.3 Rigid Bell and Spigot 6-43

6.3.8.4 Flexible Bell and Spigot 6-43

6.3.9 Pipeline Stabilization Techniques 6-43

6.4 MAGNETIC SILENCING FACILITIES 6-47

6.4.1 Magnetometer and Cable Installation 6-47

6.4.1.1 Type II System 6-47

6.4.1.2 Type III System 6-49

6.4.1.3 Type IV System 6-50

6.4.1.4 Sensor Assembly Replacement 6-53

6.5 SINGLE ANCHOR LEG MOORING (SALM) DEPLOYMENTS 6-53

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