Submarine pipeline technology has evolved rapidly in the last 30 years. The growth in pipeline technology has been driven primarily by the search for offshore oil and gas operations and has evolved from land-based, nearshore operations to dynamically positioned pipeline installation vessels capable of operating in 2,000-foot water depths under very harsh weather conditions. Although the focus of this manual is to support $mal1 diameter (8 inches or less) submarine pipelines installed as part of a military facility, the reader should be aware of the wealth of technology and specialized equipment which has been developed as a result of the hundreds of thousands of miles of submarine pipeline which have been installed in the last three decades.

The vast majority of submarine pipelines are oil or gas lines and are constructed of seamless welded steel pipe sections. However, submarine pipelines are employed to transport a variety of products and can be constructed using various combinations of installation procedures, pipeline materials, and joint types. The major considerations governing each of these areas are briefly described in the following sections. Selecting a particular installation procedure, pipeline material, or joint type is made based on a thorough evaluation of site conditions and knowledge of local equipment, personnel, and funding resources. As with any project, a site presurvey (see Appendix C)

will be required. Additional planning information unique for pipeline projects, which should also be collected during the presurvey, is listed in Appendix C.

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