Introduction To Waterfront Facilities

An important part of the UCT's work is related to the underwater inspection of a wide variety marine facilities. The following discussion provides a very brief introduction to the types of waterfront facilities that UCT personnel may encounter. More detailed information is provided in other sections in this manual as well as in specific official Government handbooks. Other marine facilities such as moorings and cable/pipeline systems are discussed in in dividual sections. The following handbooks provide useful information and should be a part of the OIC reference library:

MIL-HDBK-1025/1 - Piers and Wharves

MIL-HDBK-1025/6 - General Criteria for Waterfront Construction

MO-104.1 - Maintenance of Fender Systems and Camels

M0-104.2 - Specialized Underwater Waterfront Facilities Inspections

MO-306 - Maintenance and Operation of Cathodic Protection Systems

DM-26.1 - Harbors

DM-26.5 - Fleet Moorings

Marine facilities of interest to the UCTs include:

• Berthing facilities

• Coastal protection structures

• Components of waterfront structures: fender systems, piling, and dolphins

• Fleet moorings

• Underwater cables and pipelines

3.2.1 Berthing Facilities

Berthing facilities provide space for: mooring, shore utilities, hotel services, loading and unloading of cargo, personnel, ordnance, and fuel, and maintenance, repair, and fitting out. Piers are also used to support specific functions such as magnetic silencing facilities for submarines. Some typical configurations of piers and wharves are shown in Figure 3-1.

3.2.1.1 Piers. Piers are docks that extend outward from the shore into the water. There are basically four types of pier structures with distinct differences in configuration: open, closed, combination, and floating. These piers are :

(a) Open piers (Figure 3-2) are pile-supported platform structures which allow water to flow underneath. Conventionally open piers are single deck structures although some are double deck (Figure 3-3).

(b) Closed piers (Figure 3-4) are constructed so that water is prevented from flowing underneath. The solid fill pier is surrounded along the perimeter by a bulkhead that holds back the fill.

(c) Floating piers (Figure 3-5) can be constructed of steel or concrete and are connected to the shore with access ramps. Guide piles or anchor systems prevent lateral movement. Floating piers may be either single or double deck.

3.2.1.2 Piling. Piling is a common element found on piers, wharves, and some fender systems. Inspection and repair of piling forms an important part of UCT tasking. Figure 3-6 provides some typical pile cross sections for steel wood and concrete piles with dimensions typically found in marine structures.

The basic types of piling are:

(a) Vertical bearing piles are used to support the dead weight of the pier as well as the live loads on the pier.

(b) Batter piles primarily provide lateral and longitudinal stability but do provide limited load carrying capacity.

a. Marginal Wharf

. Rlght-Angl* Ptar On* <Np and on* lighter barih *ach «id*

g. Acuta-Angl« Pter Two b*rth« *acli »dt hJJlfi b. Square Pier a. Acute-Angta PUr On* barih *ach aid*

h. T-Typa Marginal Wharf. Barth on ouMd* fac* and lighter* on kitida

J. Pl*r or Wharf ParalM to Bank

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