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guished from woodgribble attack because abrasion is usually concentrated on one side of the pile while woodgribble destruction is uniformly distributed around the pile. Also, abrasion usually leaves the surface fibers of timber piles rough and protruding from the surface of the sound timber.

3.7.2.7 Ice Heaving. Timber piles used singly as mooring piles or in groups in light structures are subject to heaving by ice. Ice freezes to the pile and as the tide rises the buoyant force acting on the ice may cause the pile to heave as shown on Figure 3-62. In addition, ice expansion forces can loosen connections between piles and bracing.

Figure 3-62. Ice heave of timber pile.

3.7.3 Typical Inspection Procedure

Inspecting a timber waterfront structure should proceed as outlined in Table 3-8.

3.7.4 Equipment and Tools Required

To ensure a thorough inspection, the area must be cleared of all marine growth. This can be done using a "Barnacle Buster" or other types of high-pressure waterblasters. However, when using this equipment, great care must be exercised to prevent damage to the preservative-treated layer of timber.

Table 3-8

Timber Structure Underwater Inspection Checklist

Checkpoint

Description

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