Glossary

Abrasive - The agent used for abrasive blast cleaning; for example, sand, grit, steel shot, etc.

Admixture - A material other than water, aggregates, and cement that is used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar and added to the batch immediately before or during its mixing to modify its properties.

Aggregate - Granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, or iron blastfurnace slag, used with a cementing medium to form a concrete or mortar.

Airblast - The air shock wave created by an explosion.

Alidade - A surveying tool consisting of a telescope, supporting post, and straightedge used for measuring horizontal and vertical angles. Typically used in conjunction with a plane table for field compilation of maps.

Anaerobic Corrosion - Corrosion caused by anaerobic bacteria, that is, bacteria that can live in an oxygen-free environment.

Anchorage - An area designated for ships to anchor in with their own equipment.

Angle of Repose - The natural slope that a noncohesive soil will assume.

Anode - The consumable component of cathodic protection systems and corrosion cells.

Anomaly - A departure from the regular pattern as might be experienced with objects disturbing the earth's magnetic field; an irregularity or defect.

ANS - Acoustic Navigation Systems.

ANSI - American National Standards Institute.

API - American Petroleum Institute.

Areal - A type of survey concerned with the general topography/bathymetry of an area rather than with specific details.

As-Built Drawings - Drawings that show all deviations from the original design and changes made during construction.

ASTM - American Society of Testing Materials.

AWS - American Welding Society.

Azimuth - An angle measured clockwise from a meridian (such as a baseline) and varied from 0 to 360 degrees.

Baseline - A line in a survey that is established between two known points.

Bathymetry - The detailed description and analysis of the underwater features of a body of water.

Bearing - Measures the angle between a given meridian (such as a baseline) and the line to the object. The angles are from 0 to 90 degrees in four quadrants.

Benchmark - A permanently fixed point of known location and elevation used for reference during survey or alignment.

Berth - The water area at the edge of a wharf or pier reserved for a vessel.

Birdcaging - An expansion of a stranded cable caused by two close sections being pushed together.

Bitt - A single- or double-posted steel fitting on a deck of a ship or pier to which mooring lines are secured.

Block Hole - A hole drilled into a boulder to allow a small charge to be placed to break the boulder.

Bollard - A single- or double-posted steel fitting on a pier or wharf around which mooring lines from vessels are tied.

BLPS - Bottom Laid Pipeline Subsystem.

Borehole - A hole drilled in rock or other material for the placement of explosives.

Breakwater - A substantial structure, located at the outer limits of a harbor or anchorage, to protect the inner waters against the effects of heavy seas.

Bulkhead - A retaining wall to prevent sliding of earth or fill into water.

Buoy - A float moored to the bottom to mark the position of a shoal, channel, or anchorage limit, or a floating component of a ship mooring.

Cable - A flexible rope-like material containing signal transmitting conductors or optical fibers with or without reinforcing outer strength members and jackets.

Caisson - A concrete structure with a steel or concrete end closure.

Cathodic Protection - An electrical method of controlling corrosion in a conducting medium such as seawater or moist soil where an electrical current is applied to a structure either by the corrosion of an active anode material or an external electrical power supply.

Cavitation - The formation of air pockets in a flowing liquid by mechanical forces.

Charge - One or more containers or quantities of explosives that are in direct physical contact.

Chock - A metal casting with two horn-shaped arms used for passage, guiding, or steadying of mooring or towing lines.

Cleat - A metal fitting on the deck of a pier or ship usually with two projecting horns around which a rope may be made fast (as by belaying it).

Cobblestone - A naturally rounded stone.

Cohesive Soil - A soil, typically clay, that is held together by the mutual molecular attraction of its particles.

Connecting Wire - Any wire used in a blasting circuit to extend the length of a leg wire or leading wire.

Corrosion - The attack of a metal by electrochemical action.

Cratering - The use of explosives in boreholes without adjacent free faces to produce a crater-shaped excavation.

Crevice Corrosion - Corrosion of a metal accelerated by a difference in environment between one area on the metal and another area.

CSNP - Non-Powered Causeway Section.

CTD - Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth.

Cut/Burnoff Ratio - Linear inches of metal cut per inch of electrode consumed.

Cutting Tip - That part of an oxygen cutting torch from which the gases issue.

Cutting Torch - A device used in oxygen cutting for controlling and directing the gases used for preheating and the oxygen used for cutting the metal.

Deadman - A block or other heavy item, usually of concrete, buried in the ground to which is attached a steel rod or cable for anchoring objects.

Deck - The working surface of a wharf, pier, or vessel.

Delamination - A splitting apart into layers.

Detonation - The rapid change of an explosive from a solid or liquid form to a gaseous state.

DGPS - Differential Global Positioning System: Similar to a GPS except a refer ence (GSP) station at a known location is used to transmit a correction to a remote GPS on the survey vessel.

Dissimilar Metals - Metals with different galvanic potentials when immersed in a conductive medium. These different potentials can cause accelerated corrosion of one of the dissimilar metals if they are electrically connected and exposed to the conductive medium.

DNS - DiVer Navigation System.

Dock - The water area adjacent to a wharf or pier to which a ship can be secured.

Docking Blocks - Blocks used to support the keels and hulls of ships, barges, and vessels during overhaul operations.

Dolphin - A structure usually consisting of a cluster of timber piles. It is placed at the outward end of piers and wharves, or along shore, to guide vessels into their moorings; to fend vessels away from structures, shoals, or the shore; or to support navigation aids.

Draft - Depth of vessel hull or buoy below the waterline.

Drydock - A facility for exposing the normally underwater portion of a ship for construction, inspection, repair, or hull maintenance.

Dynamometer - A self-contained load measurement device that can be placed either in-line or at the end of a hauling line.

EDM - Electronic Distance Meters. ELCAS - Elevated Causeway Section.

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