Underwater Work Techniques

2.2 UNDERWATER TOOLS 2-1

2.2.1 Pneumatic Powered Tools 2-3

2.2.2 Oil Hydraulic Tools 2-4

2.2.4 Seawater Hydraulic Tools 2-10

2.2.4.1 Seawater Hydraulic Power Source 2-11

2.2.4.2 Rotary Disk Tool 2-12

2.2.4.3 Rotary Impact Tool 2-12

2.2.5 Electrical Tools 2-13

2.2.5.1 Ground Fault Detection System 2-14

2.2.5.2 Underwater Electric Field Detector 2-15

2.2.7 Mechanical Cutting 2-19

2.2.8 Metal Locator 2-19

2.3 REMOVING MARINE GROWTH 2-23

2.4 THERMAL CUTTING/WELDING 2-26

2.4.1 Thermal Cutting 2-26

2.4.2 Underwater Welding 2-33

2.5.1 Open-Bottom Lift Bags 2-34

2.5.2 Closed-Bottom Lift Bags 2-35

2.5.3 Variable-Buoyancy Lift Bags 2-37

2.5.4 Surface Lift 2-37

2.5.5 nderwater Running Rigging System 2-39

2.6 EXCAVATION 2-40

2.6.2.1 Cable and Pipeline Burial 2-44

2.6.2.2 Vertical Instrument Tube Installation 2-45

2.6.2.3 Structural Pile Installation 2-45

2.6.3 Dredging 2-45

2.7 CONTROLLED BLASTING 2-47

2.7.1 Planning 2-48

2.7.2 Permits and Authorizations 2-49

2.7.3 Equipment 2-49

2.7.4 Technique 2-50

2.7.5 Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) 2-50

2.7.5.1 Incident Reporting 2-50

2.7.5.2 Transporting Explosives 2-51

2.7.6 Explosive Cutting Techniques 2-51

2.7.7 Explosive Excavation Techniques 2-51

2.8 ANCHORING 2-53

2.8.1 Drag Embedment Anchors 2-53

2.8.1.1 Anchor Selection 2-53

2.8.1.2 Way to Improve Capacity and Troubleshooting

Anchor Problems 2-56

2.8.2 Deadweight Anchors 2-57

2.8.2.1 Simple Deadweights 2-58

2.8.2.2 Mushroom and Wedge Anchors 2-59

2.8.3 Direct Embedment Anchors 2-59

2.8.3.1 Driven Anchors 2-59

2.8.3.2 Jetted Anchors 2-60

2.8.3.3 Screw Anchors 2-61

2.8.3.4 Plate Anchor Holding Capacity 2-61

2.9 REMOTELY-OPERATED VEHICLES 2-62

2.9.1 Description and Comparison of UCT ROV Systems 2-63

2.9.2 Training Requirements 2-65

2.9.3 Vehicle Deployment and Recovery 2-65

2.9.4 Umbilical Handling and Management 2-66

2.9.5 Typical ROV Operational Configurations 2-67

moments (colli tij

2.9.6 Navigation and Tracking 2-67

2.9.7 Cold Weather Operations 2-67

2.9.8 Diver Safety 2-68

2.9.9 ROV Applications 2-70

2.10 CONCRETING 2-74

2.10.1 Pumped Concrete 2-76

2.10.2 Tremie Concrete 2-79

2.10.3 Prepacked Concrete 2-80

2.10.4 Sacked Concrete 2-85

2.11 GROUTING 2-85

2.11.1 Materials 2-85

2.11.2 Securing U-Bolts or Rock Anchors to Seabed 2-86

2.11.2.1 Hydraulic Cement 2-86

2.11.3 Repairing Deteriorated Concrete Surfaces 2-88

2.11.4 Repairing Cracks in Concrete 2-88

2.11.5 Installing Anchor Bolts in Concrete Structures 2-88

2.12 PROTECTIVE COATING APPLICATION 2-89

2.12.1 Types of Protective Coatings 2-89

2.12.2 Surface Preparation 2-90

2.12.4 Application 2-90

2.12.5 Coverage 2-91

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