Concrete Sheet Pile Structures

As described in Section 3.6.2, there are many causes of deterioration of concrete sheet piles and other precast or cast-in-place concrete structures in the marine environment. There are also many methods for the repair and maintenance of these structures. The repair methods fall into four general categories Tieback system installation replacement Shotcreting may be used above the waterline, but this method requires special equipment and training and is not normally performed by UCTs.

Info

Submarine Max Depth

ADoes not include surface or subsurface navigation system. bAssumed on-site power available, no generator shipped, and 500-foot umbilical. aDoes not include surface or subsurface navigation system. bAssumed on-site power available, no generator shipped, and 500-foot umbilical. The MiniROVER* MKII is suitable for operating to 130-foot water depths where water currents of less than 1 knot are present. With no current, the vehicle can effectively be used to depths of approximately 500 feet. The...

Equipment and Tools Required

Since the underwater inspection of stone masonry structures involves only a cursory inspection of the joints between stones and the general condition of the wall and its foundation, only a few tools are required. A ruler is used to determine the width and depth of cracks and open joints, as well as the size of missing stones or pieces of stone. It is also useful for quantifying the amount of scouring that has occurred. A length of small-diameter rebar or other suitable probe can be used to...

For diva safety use only Ctype clamps for grounding during both cutting and welding

The clamp must be firmly secured to the work piece for the arc-striker plate when cutting nonconducting materials. The diver may elect to lightly tack weld the clamp in place where there is a possibility that it may work loose. When cutting or melting nonconductive materials, such as concrete, rock, coral, mastic, rope, or marine growth, a striker plate is necessary to strike an arc. This metal plate is connected to the ground cable and placed next to the material to be cut. If the rod ignition...

Pumped Concrete

Pumping freshly mixed concrete is the most expeditious means of placing concrete underwater in spaces of limited accessibility. It is generally preferred over the tremie method, however, the following considerations should be accounted for Pumped concrete should be used to fill the forms from the bottom upward, displacing the seawater as additional concrete is forced in at the bottom. (Recently, new admixtures have been developed that enable concrete to be dropped without a tremie.) High...

J J J J

.Figure 4-3 Example of line naming convention. mended survey line spacing was previously presented, but in some cases it will be necessary to work with a minimum survey line spacing. This is necessary when maximum resolution of bottom features is required. Consider the example of 100-foot spacing for both survey lines and tie lines. A bottom feature could exist with significant vertical relief, as long as it is within the 100- by 100-foot grid square. In order to resolve this type of bottom...

Cables

The UCTs will be involved with the maintenance and repair of near shore cables that connect deep-sea cables, offshore platforms, or underwater devices to onshore terminals. The types of underwater electromechanical and signal cables usually encountered are listed in Table 5-1 and illustrated in Figure 5-1. Undersea cables are subject to many hazards, such as anchor-inflicted damage, storm surf surge, trawler fouling, scouring, ice, marine organisms, and earth-mass movements. Drag anchors can be...

Explanation of pile condition ratings for timber piles

Corrosion is the principal cause of deterioration of steel waterfront structures. Corrosion of steel is an electrochemical process that converts the steel into iron oxides. These iron oxides are easily recognized by their reddish-brown color and are commonly called rust. The rust may remain in place in the form of an encrustation or may naturally fall away or be removed by wave action or abrasion. The corroded surfaces are usually irregular and in some cases the attack in...

Limnoria Timber Damage

Shipworm (Teredo) damage of timber pile Woodgribbles (Limnoria) are crustaceans related distantly to the crab and shrimp family. They are quite small, averaging only 1 8 to 1 4 inch in length. This tiny organism is a voracious wood chewer, with its appendages and mouth developed for rasping and biting. At birth, the woodgribble mother retains the young within a pouch until they develop sufficiently to fend for themselves. She then releases them within her furrow and they proceed to...

Coastal Protection Structures

Structures designed to reduce the erosive effects of wave action, or to protect harbors from excessive wave action and the formation of sandbars, are classified protection structures. The common coastal protection structures are seawalls, groins, jetties, and breakwaters. N A VF AC Mil-Hdbk-1025 4, Seawalls, Bulkheads, and Quay walls and NAVFAC DM-26.02, Coastal Protection, provide additional information on the design and configuration of coastal protection structures.

Sea State Description

Wind* light air, 1-4 knots. Beaufort 1. Not felt on face. Small wavelets, no foam. Wind* light to gentle breeze, 4-10 knots. Beaufort 2-3. Felt on face, light flags wave. Large wavelets, crests begin to break. Wind* gentie to moderate breeze, 7-15 knots. Beaufort 3-4. Light flags extended. Moderate waves, many white caps, some spray. Wind* moderate to strong breeze, 14 - 27 knots. Beaufort 4-6. Wind whisdes in rigging. Sea heaps up, with spindrift and foam streaks. Wind*...

Chain Cathodic Protection System

Record anode size and location on the chain. Observe and record anode condition and determine whether or not its consumption is uniform. Record the color and estimate the thickness of the oxidation coating. Ensure secure attachment to the chain and the continuity wire. Using an underwater voltmeter (Section 3.4.5), measure and record the chain's electrical potential. (See 3.5.4.2 below for use of underwater voltmeter.) b. Electrical Continuity-Cables Clips Check and record cable's secure...

Scope

A major area of work performed by the UCTs is related to the maintenance and repair of facilities in the marine environment. Typical tasks involve maintenance and repair of cables, pipelines, fleet moorings, pile and sheet pile structures, cathodic protection systems, and scour protection. Maintenance consists of checking and keeping in good repair the various systems or combinations of systems designed and installed to protect a facility when it was originally built. Repair consists of...

Underwater Patches For Steel Sheet Piling

Sheet Pile Cap System

Pressure grouting of steel sheet pile wall. Figure 5-19. Pressure grouting of steel sheet pile wall. Installation of a concrete cap requires removal of the existing surface pavement or decking and excavation inboard of the sheet pile. When this has been accomplished, an inspection should be made to determine the condition of the tieback system and the need for replacement. If a new tieback system is installed (Section 5.6.4), care must be taken to electrically isolate the new tie...

Seawalls

Seawalls are massive coastal structures built along the shoreline to protect coastal areas from erosion caused by waves and flooding during heavy seas. Seawalls are constructed of a variety of materials including rubble-mounds, granite masonry, or reinforced concrete elements (Figure 3-64). They are usually supplemented by steel or concrete sheet pile driven into the soil and are strengthened by wales and brace-type piles. Figure 3-65 shows three seawall configurations. Figure 3-64. Precast...

Historical Information

Prior to conducting a survey, several steps should be taken to ensure a successful operation. All available information about the area should be obtained from up-to-date sources. Further information on NOAA bathym trie products is provided in Appendix E. Appendix A provides a list of addresses for relevant sources. Appendix C provides usefiil suggestions for site sur veys. This information includes previous surveys of the area Nautical charts from NOAA - a set of five catalogs is available from...

Navsea S6430 Ae Ted 010

Where practical, the surface-supplied diving system (SSDS) should be used when working with powered tools (scuba should only be used as a last resort). Pneumatic tools can be effectively used underwater but are generally NOT attractive to use for several reasons 1. The power required (gas volume and pressure) increases with increasing depth of the dive. 2. The exhaust bubbles often obscure vision of the work surface and the escaping gas causes pressure waves, which can nauseate the diver. 3....

Section 62 CABLES

Design and installation of nearshore ocean cable protection systems. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Chesapeake Division. Manual FPO-1-78 (3). (ADA165713) Naval Facilities Engineering Command (1976). Submarine cabled system design and installation planning manual Volume 1 - Design and construction orientation Volume 2 - Procedures for the planning, design, construction and installation of an undersea cable facility. NAVFAC P-906. Naval Facilities Engineering...

Glossary

Abrasive - The agent used for abrasive blast cleaning for example, sand, grit, steel shot, etc. Admixture - A material other than water, aggregates, and cement that is used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar and added to the batch immediately before or during its mixing to modify its properties. Aggregate - Granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, or iron blastfurnace slag, used with a cementing medium to form a concrete or mortar. Airblast - The air shock wave created by an...

Permits and Authorizations

All underwater detonations require prior approval due to military, environmental, or legal reasons. Federal, State, and local agencies must be contacted. The highest Navy authority has mandated that all Navy activities comply with environmental regulations Navy Fleet Commanders have issued amplifying instructions for underwater detonation requirements. Obstruction or alteration of U.S. navigable water requires authorization via the Army Corps of Engineers. Local and State...

F

Fasteners, torque 2-16, 6-15 Fathometer (depth recorder) 4-22 3-22 Fender piles 3-5 Fiber optic cables, splicing 5-3 Fix intervals along the survey line 4-6 Fleet Mooring anchors 3-31 3-30 Forms 5-37,5-71 6-38 Pipe (conduit) 5-31 Suction hose 2-47 Boat balloons 2-34 3-9 3-2 Flow diverter 2-5 2-44 Freeze thaw deterioration 3-50 Frequency of inspection 3-15 3-62 3-62

Note

The site visit must include a call on the local commanding officer to discuss the nature of the project as a courtesy and to enhance relations and support. The Coast Guard Captain of the Port (COTP) should be contacted as a valuable source of information. The COTP can help the Detachment coordinate notice to mariners and establish traffic patterns around the diving area. Contacting the COTP can eliminate a lot of confusion about the dive area. Survey the local shoreline for visible cable vaults...

Section 63 Pipelines

Tips on torque. Pipe Line Industry, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, TX, May 1972. Brown, R.J. (1968). Rational design of submarine pipelines, Proceedings of OECON, Athens, Greece, 1968, p. 43-90. Crane Company (1988). Flow of fluids through valves, fittings, and pipe. Technical Paper No. 410. DMJM Pipeline and Marine Division (1981). Nearshore pipeline installation methods. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Contract Report CR 81.016. Grace, R.A. (1978). Marine outfall...

General Suppliers

AMRON International 759 West Fourth Avenue Escondido, CA 92025-4089 (619) 746-3834 Supply) 240 North Milwaukie Street Milwaukie, WI 53202 (414) 272-2371 Ben Meadows Co. 3589 Broad Street Adanta, GA 30341 (800) 241-6401 Mar-Vel Underwater Equipment, Inc. Box 654 Aqua Tech Dive Center 1800 Logan Avenue San Diego, C A 92113 (800) 345-3252 Diving Equipment Co. of America 333 E. Haley Street Santa Barbara, CA 93101 (805) 564-1923 Diving Systems International 425 Garden Street Santa Barbara, CA 93101...

Approximate Formulas for Seamanship

Natural fiber (manila) line (circumference in inches)2 x 900 lb Nylon fiber line, three strand (circumference in inches)2 x 2,400 lb 6x19 IWRC steel wire rope (WR) (circumference in inches)2 x 7,500 lb (Note This formula can be use for other wire ropes as a conservative rule-of-thumb. Kevlar (aramid) line (circumference in inches)2 x 7,500 lb 2. Safe working load for manila, nylon, polypropylene or steel wire 1 4 BS for new line or wire rope 1 6 BS for average (used) condition line or wire...

Fleet Angle

A fleet angle is the angle between the rope leaving the sheave and the centerline of the sheave groove. The fleet angle is important when winding a wire rope on a drum. As the rope is being wound on a drum, it wanders from one side of the drum to the other. Make sure the sheave groove is aligned with the center of the drum to minimize the maximum fleet angle. The maximum fleet angle determines the uniformity of the rope wound on the drum. If the fleet angle is small enough, the rope will wind...

Wire Rope Sheave Diameter

The radius of bend has an effect on the strength of wire rope. In order to take this fact into account in selecting the size sheave to be used with a given diameter wire rope, the following table can be used as a guide. For example Using a 1 2-inch-diam-eter wire rope (d) with a 10-inch-diameter sheave (D), D d 10+ 1 2 20 and the strength efficiency 91 as compared to the catalog strength of wire rope. For long-term or permanent wire rope installations, use D d as follows For short term usage, D...

Mlw

Cast-in-place concrete 3 min Existing concrete pile Sponge rubber seal New No. 3 ties (as required) Steel bands Sponge rubber seal New No. 3 ties (as required) Steel bands Original pile size Existing bar (wire brushed) T St O, plywood, steel, or fiberglass Cast-in-place concrete Sponge rubber seal

Section 32 Introduction To Waterfront Facilities

Naval Facilities Engineering Command (1992). Maintenance and operation of ca- thodic protection systems. NAVFAC MO-306. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (1990). Maintenance of fender systems and camels. NAVFAC MO-104.1. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (1988). General criteria for waterfront construction. MIL-HDBK-1025 6. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (1988). Seawalls, bulkheads, and quaywalls. MIL-HDBK-1025 4. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (1987). Piers and wharves....

Lift Bags

Automarine Corp. 10 Old Road Lane Mt. Kisco, NY 10540 (914) 241-0297 Mar-Vel Underwater Equipment, Inc. P.O. Box 654 Camden, NJ 08101-0654 (609) 962-8719 AMRON International 759 West Fourth Avenue Escondido, CA 92025 (619) 746-3834 Canflex Inc. 505-30th Street Anacortes, WA 98221 (800) 544-8356 Subsalve USA P.O. Box 9307 Providence, RI 02940 (800) 466-6962 Continental EMSCO P.O. Box 1489 Houston, TX 77251 (713) 640-7400 Ensign-Bickford Co. 660 Hopmeadow Street...

Underwater Tools

Naef Road Milwaukie, OR 97222 (503) 659-5660 Wachs, E.H., Co. 100 Shepard Street Wheeling, IL 60090 (800) 323-8185 Robert C. Collins Co. (Barnacle Buster) 6772 N.E. 4th Avenue Miami, FL 33138 (305) 751-0677 The Hotsy Corporation 21-T Inverness Way East Englewood, CO 80112-5796 (800) 821-6490 TWECO Aircair Products 4200 W. Harry Wichita, KS 67209 (800)231-9353 2824 North Locust Avenue Rialto, CA 92376-1747 (909) 350-4701 Craftsweld Equip. Corp. 26-28 Jackson...

Underwater Electric Fields

Underwater electric fields can be generated from an undetected ground fault in the pier power system, a powered cathodic protection system, or a fault in the lighting and inspection devices carried by the diver. Divers performing underwater inspection of piers and offshore structures can swim near hazardous electric fields. The shock hazards to the diver who swims into an elec-_ trie field are the same as described earlier in this text, but no contact with any part of the electrical equipment...

Active

Two dissimilar metals are connected together electrically and immersed in seawater. The effect of this galvanic corrosion is an in crease in the rate of corrosion of one of the metals and a decrease in the rate of corro sion of the other. In order to determine which metal will suffer accelerated corro sion, use the Galvanic Series table. In the galvanic series, the metals are listed in order of their activity in seawater. The more active metal, the higher it will appear in the series. For...

Cathodic Protection

Cathodic protection is another means of controlling corrosion of the submerged portion of steel in waterfront structures. Two types of cathodic protection systems are used for marine structures. They are (1) the sacrificial anode system, and (2) the impressed current system. Both systems require periodic inspection and maintenance. The sacrificial anode system can be retrofitted into the waterfront structures using procedures within the scope of this manual. Planning and estimating data are...

Ss5

Modular Construction Platform Characteristics Figure B-l. Modular construction platform. The 12 steel pontoons provide the basic floating structure for the 60- by 32-foot MCP. Pontoons are equipped with end and side connectors that allow the user to tailor the configuration of the MCP to suit the application. For example, one or two center pontoons can be left out to form a moon pool for diving or deploying materials. Or, nine pontoon units can be joined together with connectors to...

Appendixes

A - List of B - Reference Information for UCT C - Useful Information for Site D - Electrical Safety for Divers E - NO A A Bathym trie Map 1-1 Naval Ocean Facilities 1-2 Project planning arrow 1 -3 Construction Gantt chart 1-4 Material takeoff and pack-out 2-1 Shaded area slows viscosity range recommended for hydraulic tools 2-6 2-2 Commercial light-duty hand 2-3 Commercial heavy-duty hand 2-4 Commercial sinker 2-5 Operate oil-hydraulic tools at the viscosity 2-6 Skid-mounted seawater power...

Concreting

Concrete placed underwater is the most widely used repair method in marine applications. The concrete mix should be designed in accordance with ACI 211.1-91, Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight and Mass Concrete. Naval Facilities Engineering Command Guide Specification NFGS-03300G, Cast-in-Place Concrete, provides a number of concrete mix examples that are helpful in initial selection of trial mixes. The mix must have good workability and, thus, should meet the...

Section 35 Fleet Moorings

Naval Construction Battalion Center (1982). Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach NAVSTA Long Beach, Fleet moorings underwater inspection plan, Underwater Construction Team Two, Inspection Plan. Port Hueneme, CA. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (1986). San Diego fleet mooring, underwater inspection report. FPO-l-86(38). (ADB111565) Naval Facilities Engineering Command (1985). Fleet moorings. NAVFAC DM-26.5. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (1984). Fleet mooring underwater inspection...

X

X indicates that the pipe material is suitable for use with the listed method. C indicates that extreme care must be exercised in using this combination of pipe material and installation method. Table 6-4. Coated Steel Pipe Installations Table 6-4. Coated Steel Pipe Installations Pipeline welders Experienced crews Reel operator Pipeline welders Experienced crews Drilling operator Pipeline welders Experienced crews Divers Pipeline welders Experienced crews Divers Winches Launchway Pull barge...

References

The references listed below provide additional information on the various subjects covered by this manual. The reader is encouraged to use these references to obtain details of previous UCT operations and further background on specific subjects. The references are categorized in accordance with the organization of Chapters 2 through 6 of this manual. Since a number of the references contain information on more than one topic, they appear more than once in the list. Copies of all of the...

Research development design and construction

Figure 1-1 Naval Ocean Facilities Program. Naval Facilities Engineering Command Message Address COMNAVFACENGCOM ALEXANDRIA VA (Recommend using the NFESC ESC56 message address.) (Physically located at the NFESC East Coast Detachment, recommend using the NFESC Code ESC56 mailing address.) Tele (202) 433-5596 DSN 288-5596 FAX (202) 433-2280 UCT Program Officer, Seabee Support Division (Code I232F) Working within the NAVFAC Seabee Support Division, the UCT Program Officer is responsible for...

Naval Ocean Facilities Program

The missions of the components of the Naval Ocean Facilities Program (NOFP) are described below. The interrelationships of the various components are illustrated in Figure 1-1. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC, NAVFACENGCOM, or NAVFACHQTRS) Manages the Naval Ocean Facilities Program through capability development of personnel, engineering technology base, and ocean construction equipment. Coordinates utilization of this capability for planning, design, construction, installation,...

Table

Partial replacement of steel H-pile. > W te. < W 0A< r - < I < 1 v i LA UHCO Planning and Estimating Data for Steel Pile Repair Using Partial Replacement Description of Task Repair a severely deteriorated steel H-pile by replacing a section of the pile from 1 foot above the high waterline to 2 feet below the low waterline. Total length of repair is 10 to 20 feet. Pile is located near the edge of the structure. Size of Crew Dive station, welders, crane operator, two laborers....

Free general engineering and geotechnical software

General Engineers

All of the information, data and computer software (information) presented on this web site is for general information only. While every effort will be made to insure its accuracy, this information should not be used or relied on for any specific application without independent, competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability and applicability by a licensed professional. Anyone making use of this information does so at his or her own risk and assumes any and all...

Warning

Do not install fasteners closer than 5 8 inch from edge of steel because the steel may break allowing the fastener to ricochet and cause serious injury. The recommended minimum distance between fastenings is 2-1 4 inches. Do not fasten into steel material which is thinner than the fastener shank diameter. 3- to 4-ksi concrete 4.5- to 6-ksi concrete 9 to 10 times shank diameter 7 to 8 times shank diameter 5 to 6 times shank diameter Note Concrete should be at least three times as thick as...

Anchoring

Anchoring is integral to many UCT operations both on land and offshore. Often, there is no one anchor choice that is the best for any application. Many anchors and anchor types will work acceptably if used correctly and with a little creativity. This section discusses the various anchor types, their limitations, and their strengths to allow the UCTs to solve most of the anchoring problems typical of nearshore operations. Drag embedment anchors rely on dragging to embed the anchor to achieve...

Planning And Estimating Guides

To assist in the planning and estimating process, information regarding the manpower, productivity, equipment, and materials required to carry out various tasks is provided throughout the manual. This information has been developed from a variety of sources including past UCT operations, NFESC and proprietary test results for specific equipment, manufacturers' recommendations, and commercial practice. The information obtained from these sources has been adjusted to conform with typical UCT...

Outboard Profile

The LCM-8 (Model 1, Mark VIII) is a box-shaped landing craft with machinery space and propulsion aft and an open cargo well forward terminating in a ramp at the bow. Overall length, including the ramp in the stowed condition, is 74 feet. The hull length is 71.56 feet, and the load waterline length is 63.29 feet. The extreme beam is 21.05 feet and the load waterline draft is 4.50 feet above the baseline. The twinskegs aft extend 0.44 feet below the baseline giving a maximum draft at the stern of...

Removing Of Buoy With Crane Procedure

Underwater Construction

Mooring leg chain stopper. This procedure should be repeated until the chain remaining in the water equals the water depth plus freeboard, plus a nominal 20 feet. During inhaul, the chain should be waterblasted to remove mud and debris and then carefully laid on deck to aid in inspection and reinstallation. The crane should be used to recover the remaining bights of chain as well as the anchor. The load from the winch should be transferred to the crane and the inhaul wire removed....

Controlled Blasting

The information provided in this section will provide an introduction to planning and implementing underwater blasting operations. A number of factors that contribute to conducting a successful blasting operation are discussed below. However, underwater blasting must be conducted in accordance with the procedures discussed in the following technical publications NAVSEA SW061 -AA-MMA-010, Technical Manual for Use of Explosives in Underwater Salvage NAVSEA OP 5, Vol 1, Rev A, Ammunition and...

Breakwater

Typical rubble-mound structures. Slippage of base material as a result of scour by currents Dislodgment of stones by wave action Excessive setdement of the seabed supporting the structure During the inspection of seawalls, breakwaters, groins, and jetties, similar to those shown in Figure 3-67, the inspector should check for horizontal and vertical alignment. He should also be particularly watchful for signs of breakage or displacement of large stones or concrete armor elements,...

Fleet Moorings 351 Types of Fleet Moorings

Multiple Mooring Chain Connection

Fleet moorings allow ships to maintain either a fixed or semi-fixed position. A fleet mooring in common use is the riser free-swinging mooring as shown in Figure 3- 29. This type of mooring achieves its holding power through anchors embedded in the seafloor. These anchors are connected to ground leg chains that meet at the ground ring which, in turn, is connected to a riser-type buoy by a riser chain. Another fleet mooring is the nonriser free-swinging mooring (previously called telephone),...

Introduction

U.S. Navy diving manual, Vol 1 - Air diving. NAVSEA 0994-LP-001-9010, Rev 3. Naval Sea Systems Command (1991). U.S. Navy diving manual, Vol 2 - Mixed-gas diving. NAVSEA 0994-LP-001-9020, Rev 3. COMCBPAC COMCBLANT Instruction 5200.2A (1988). NMC Operations Officers Handbook. Naval Sea Systems Command (1993). U.S. Navy diving manual, Vol 1 - Air diving. NAVSEA 0994-LP-001-9010, Rev 3. Naval Sea Systems Command (1991). U.S. Navy diving manual, Vol 2 - Mixed-gas...

U

Direct embedment anchors. Figure 2-45 Simple fabricated plate anchor. (Note The length should be 1 to 1-1 2 times the width.) Figure 2-45 Simple fabricated plate anchor. (Note The length should be 1 to 1-1 2 times the width.) Water is pumped into the upper end of the pipe and discharged at the bottom, thereby dislodging soil and permitting the cone and pipe to settle into the liquefied soil. The soil should be tamped thoroughly after jetting to redensify the soil and increase...

Site Survey Procedures

RAM ILS guidelines and engineering drawings for seven diver geotechnical tools. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Technical Memorandum M-42-83-02. Bailard, J.A. (1982). Geotechnical diver tool development. Civil Engineering Laboratory, Technical Report R-892. (ADB065655L) Cooper, K. (1982). Magnetic treatment measurement system (MTMS), Deperming Facility, U.S. Naval Station, San Diego, CA, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Chesapeake Division, FPO-1, Project...

Preparation Before Deployment

A project can only be successful if it is well planned before deployment. An important source of planning information is the NMCB Operations Officers Handbook -COMCBPAC COMCBLANT Instruction 5200.2A.The U.S. Navy Diving Manual is a source of planning information. Chapter 4 of Volume I of the Diving Manual is a valuable resource for planning any diving operation, including underwater construction projects. The first step in the planning process is familiarization with the nature and details of...

Underwater Inspection Procedures

3-1 3.2 INTRODUCTION TO WATERFRONT FACILITIES 3-1 3-2 3-2 3.2.1.3 Wharves and 3.2.1.4 Fender 3.2.1.6 Drydocking 3.3.1 Levels of 3.3.2 Planning for 3.4.2 Deterioration of Steel 3-17 3.4.2.3 Structural Connection 3.4.2.4 Fatigue 3.4.2.6 Foundation 3.4.5 Equipment and Tools 3-23 3.4.5.2 Underwater Magnetic Particle Testing 3-24 3.5.3 Deterioration of Fleet 3-35 3.5.4 Typical Inspection 3.5.4.1 Inspection 3.5.5 Equipment and Tools 3.6 CONCRETE 3.6.1 Types of Marine Concrete 3.6.2 Deterioration of...

Electrical Safety Equipment

The most common item associated with electrical safety is the Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI) found on electrical outlets in bathrooms and areas where water is present. These GFIs designed for terrestrial use may not be adequate for use with electrical equipment used by the divers. There are two types of electrical safety devices specifically designed for diver applications. They are the 2.5-kVA Ground Fault Detector (Standard and Arctic versions) and the Underwater Electric Field Detector...

Timber Sheet Pile Structures

As described in Section 3.7.2, there are many causes of deterioration of timber walls in the marine environment. There are also many methods for the repair and maintenance of timber walls. The repair and maintenance methods fall into four general categories Tieback system installation replacement Wall load modifications 5.10.1 Patching Localized areas that have deteriorated as a result of marine borer infestation or rot can be repaired by patching with underwater cement as described in Table...

Figure 3 Fish plates joining like diameter piles

If bracing occurs at splice location, bolt to splice as shown If bracing occurs at splice location, bolt to splice as shown Existing 14 x 14 pile cap or 12 x 14 low pile cap 1 diam galvanized bolt with nut and two washers (typical) Shim under dap to obtain fall bearing Cut out and replace damaged portion of existing pile with pile butt or 14 x 14 timber Two 4x12 timber scabs. Use four scabs if removed portion is greater than 10 feet Use filler blocks as required to fill space between scabs and...

Concrete Encasement of Concrete and Timber Piles

Concrete Encasment

Problem Precast concrete pile deteriorates due to sulfate attack, spalling, or cracks or 10 to SO percent of timber cross-sectional area has been lost due to marine borer attack. Description of Repairs Flexible or rigid forms together with reinforcing are used to produce a partial or complete concrete casing around damaged pile. Follow form manufacturer's directions. As required, excavate below mudline to expose deteriorated pile. Thoroughly clean pile of marine growth using scrapers,...

Graving Drydocks

3.10.1 Graving Drydock General Arrangement Graving drydocks are waterfront structures that provide ship drydocking to allow repair or overhaul of underwater portions of ships, barges, and other waterborne craft. Although some stone masonry drydocks exist, most drydocks are primarily concrete structures with a steel or concrete end closure (caisson) to allow dewa-tering of the drydock. Figures 3-68 and 369 show the general arrangement of a typical graving drydock and caisson assembly. 3.10.1.1...

Excavation

There are several different methods of excavating seabed material. The methods most suitable for typical UCT operations include Commercial divers sometimes use diesel gasoline-driven solids handling pumps and submersible electric-driven solids handling pumps as shown in Figure 2-34. The best method for any particular situation depends on a number of factors including The nature of the seabed material to be excavated soft or hard, fine grained or coarse grained, maximum size of particle. The...

Timber Construction Ogee Washer

Figure 3-59 Bending overloading of timber pile. 3.7.2.5 Structural Connection Corrosion. The weak link in marine timber construction is the connecting hardware, since this steel hardware is subject to corrosion. Figure 3-60 illustrates one consequence of one type of hardware failure. Of prime importance to structure integrity are the proper sizing of pins and bolts and the use of Ogee washers in place of thin, flat plate steel washers. The pins and bolts are subject to corrosion, which is very...

Figure 632 Opds Salm before deployment

Opds Boats

Offshore petroleum discharge system. Floating hoses Valve flotation spool piece Figure 6-33. Offshore petroleum discharge system. Table 6-9. Outline of UCT OPDS Participation I. CONDUCT SALM PREDEPLOYMENT PROCEDURES 1. ON TANKER CHECK OF SALM AND INVENTORY EQUIPMENT If possible OPDS inventory and inspection should be accomplished by UCT personnel before tanker deploys to the operational site. All equipment must be on site and in operational condition before deployment is initiated....

Introduction To Waterfront Facilities

An important part of the UCT's work is related to the underwater inspection of a wide variety marine facilities. The following discussion provides a very brief introduction to the types of waterfront facilities that UCT personnel may encounter. More detailed information is provided in other sections in this manual as well as in specific official Government handbooks. Other marine facilities such as moorings and cable pipeline systems are discussed in in dividual sections. The following...

Presentation Of Site Survey Results

Construction Completion Report

The format used for reporting the results cf bathymetric surveys is usually a map. The most effective map is one that is clearly drawn and annotated. The drafter of the map should keep in mind that others will be needing the map for various purposes. The map should be large enough to include all pertinent information but not so large as to become difficult to handle in the field. Figure 4-19 is a typical map made from a UCT bathymetric survey. The datums used for the survey and the location and...

Pipeline Off Bottom Tow Procedure

Ship Towing Procedure

Figure 6-18 Submarine pipeline installation procedures. Figure 6-18 Submarine pipeline installation procedures. 63.6.1 Bottom Pull. The bottom pull installation is ideally suited for the installation of short 10,000 feet or less , small diameter pipelines for ship-to-shore fuel transfer operations. In a bottom pull installation, the pipe is preassembled into short sections 100- to 1,000-foot lengths at a launch site located adjacent to the shore crossing. A pulling barge is moored offshore of...

Underwater maintenance and repair procedures

Underwater Pipe Installation

Submersible cable injector can be used either on land or underwater. duce future damage such as suspensions and abrasion . This will provide a comparison basis for future surveys. Table 5-3 provides a summary of the most significant abnormal conditions that should be observed and recorded during the cable inspection. Other specific information may be requested by the customer or on-site engineers. Measurements and other information desired for specific conditions are listed in Table...

Diver Electrical Safety

There cannot be too many precautions taken to eliminate underwater shock hazards. Common sense, training, and good equipment maintenance play a critical role in preventing electrical accidents. Common sense rules for the use of electricity by divers are the best means of ensuring diver safety. Most cases of electrical shock result from human error. There is no substitute for attention to details of connections, acceptable conditions of equipment, tagging out switches, and so on. As in...

Figure 1 Repairs of an existing sheet pile wall

Replacing Tieback Systems for Steel Sheet Pile Problem Slight to moderate top movement of sheet pile wall due to tieback failure. CAUTION Before beginning construction Secure area to prevent marine and vehicle traffic from using facility. Obtain clearances from local authority. Description of Repairs Install a new wale slightly above the existing wale and install new tieback system. Engineering personnel should determine tieback system design including the need and design for corrosion...

Section 16 Shipping And Handling Procedures

Hazardous materials tariff manual. ATM 111-M. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Labor, Part 1910.1200 - Occupational safety and health standard. Hazard communication. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Transportation, Subchapter C - Hazardous materials regulations, Parts 173-177 Part 173 - Shippers-general requirements for shipments and packagings, Part 174 - Carriage by rail, Part 175 - Carriage by aircraft, Part 176 - Carriage by vessel, Part 177...

Gfd Specs

Holding Power The Fastener

2.5 kVA output 115 VAC, 60 Hz 20-amp max output current 10-msec max shutdown time CAUTION Certain types of electrical equipment will not operate with the GFD or the GFD may damage the equipment connected to it. Qualified electronics technicians must review circuit diagrams before using electrical devices with the GFD. Figure 2-10 2.5-kVA ground fault detector. Figure 2-10 2.5-kVA ground fault detector. Some electrically operated equipment such as ROVs, video equipment, and communications gear...

Stone Masonry Structures

Concrete Graving Dock

3.8.1 Types of Stone Masonry Structures Although very few waterfront structures built today are constructed from stone masonry, it is still necessary to be familiar with the inspection of this type of structure. Throughout the 19th century, stone masonry was generally used in constructing graving docks, bridge piers, quaywalls, and wharves. Typically, the quarried stone used was granite set into lime mortar or pordand cement mortar. 3.8.2 Deterioration of Stone Masonry Structures Stone masonry...

Steel Piles

Detail Wrapping Mesh Concrete Encasement

As described in Section 3.4, there are a number of different causes of deterioration of steel in the marine environment. There are also many methods for the repair and maintenance of steel piles. Selecting the method to be used depends on 1 the extent of the damage, 2 economics of the repair, and 3 physical and environmental factors at the site. The pile plays an important role in the integrity of the overall structure and deterioration can result in serious reduction of the capacity of the...

Ulussahy

Electrical Potential - See Galvanic Potential. Electrolyte - A nonmetallic medium capable of conducting electricity by the movement of ions rather than electrons. ESSM - Emergency Ship Salvage Material A Navy maintained pool of equipment used to support emergency ship salvage, ship husbandry, oil spill response, and diving. ESSM pools of equipment are located world-wide and are operated by the Naval Sea Systems Command, Code OOC. ESSM depots are located at Williamsburg, Virginia Sasebo, Japan...

Completion Documentation

All projects carried out by the UCTs, whether they are inspections, surveys, repairs, or installations, should be documented with a completion report. The completion report is the responsibility of the detachment leader and documents the work done for future reference or action. It should be frank and realistic, and should clearly and accurately describe the results of the task and the condition of the facilities upon completion. It will be a historical and practical document that will serve a...

Underwater Rebar Locator

Underwater Umbilical System

Overloading of concrete pile during pile driving. 3.6.2.6 Shrinkage. Shrinkage or contraction can occur from moisture or temperature changes. Hardened concrete that looses internal water due to evaporation will shrink. Any temperature decrease of the concrete will cause contraction. The major cause of microcracks within concrete is from high temperatures generated from the normal hydration of cement. The concrete hardens at a high temperature and later cools to ambient...

Wall Thickness Determination

Thickness Submarine Walls

Pipeline must be strong enough to withstand internal pressure, external pressure, and installation stresses. Hydrodynamic Stability The submerged weight of the pipeline must be sufficient to resist movement when subjected to wave and current loads. This evaluation is typically performed for both the installation environment 1-year return period environmental loads and an air-filled pipe and UNUttiVVA it H IN6 ALLA HUN hhoctzdures the operating environment 20-year return period environmental...

Nfesc Port Hueneme Ca

Ocean Engineering Division Code ESC53 Support Operations Group Code ESC54 Codes ESC50, ESC55, and ESC56 are at the East Coast Detachment of the NFESC NFESC ECDET Tele 202 433-5365 DSN 288-5596 FAX 202 433-2280 Tele 202 433-5365 DSN 288-5365 FAX 202 433-2280 Message Address NFESC EAST COAST DET WASHINGTON DC Ocean Construction Equipment Inventory OCEI Support Facility Provides inventory control, handling, shipping, storage, maintenance, repair, and disposition of equipment, including operator...

Pipeline Design

Submarine pipeline design is a specialized technology which is quite different from the design of land-based pipelines. Technical support for the design and installation of submarine pipelines is available to the reader through the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center NFESC . Pipelines that are used to transport hazardous substances or potable water are subject to local and national regulations which govern various aspects of the pipeline design i.e., burial depth, material selection,...

Buoy Lower Portion Underwater

If timber, report any splintering or broken missing sections. If rubber, report any tears, rips, or missing sections. If visible, record fender attachment method. Check for and report any rusted, loose, or broken attachments or bolts. Record marine growth thickness. If there is no appreciable marine growth, check and record the type and condition of the protective coating paint or fiberglass . Report any dents or other bottom hull damage. Check lower tension bar eye for wear and measure its...

Diver Safety

The MiniROVER MKII and PHANTOM DHD2 2 vehicle systems can supplement manned diving operations by performing support tasks. The systems can also be used to observe, document, and provide additional illumination for the working divers. However, because of electrical safety reasons, neither can interface direcdy with divers in the water. The diver and ROV umbilical can become entangled. Also, ROVs can injure divers, through collision, with thrusters, or with tools on the vehicle such as a...

Remotelyoperated Vehicles

Underwater Construction

Remotely-operated vehicles ROVs are robots that can be used to support inspection, survey, and light work tasks underwater. They provide deep and long duration dive capabilities in hazardous water conditions with minimal risk to personnel. ROVs can also supplement manned diving operations by performing support tasks before, during, and after the divers are deployed. Overall ROV operations require less personnel and support equipment than do manned diving operations. Performance capabilities and...

General Inspection Procedures

The purpose of any inspection is to provide the information necessary to assess the condition capacity, safety, and rate of deterioration of a structure. The usefulness of an inspection depends, therefore, on the suitability and recording of the data observations obtained for use in later engineering evaluations. An underwater inspection is a condition survey therefore, the diver should make and report observations and measurements that can be used by an engineer to make the engineering...

Section 27 Controlled Blasting

CINCLANTFLT Instruction 08530.2 Underwater ordnance, Commander-in-Chief Atlantic Fleet latest edition . CINCPACFLT Instruction 8530.1 Underwater ordnance, Commander-in-Chief Pacific Fleet latest edition . COMTHIRDFLT Instruction 8530.1 Disposal of ordnance at sea, Commander Third Fleet latest edition . Hallanger, L.W. 1976 . Interim field guide to nearshore underwater explosive excavation. Civil Engineering Laboratory, Technical Report R-843. ADA028618 Hallanger, L.W. 1975 . Underwater...

Underwater Piping Contractor Chicago

Undersea Construction

Not practical for this pipe material 63.7.2 Cast Iron Pipe. Cast iron or ductile iron pipe is suitable for low pressure water transmission lines. Cast iron pipe contains low carbon and high silicon contents which give this material superior corrosion resistance. However, cast iron is a britde material which is subject to failure from thermal strains or impact damage. It is normally supplied with bell and spigot type joints which can deflect up to 15 degrees for submarine pipeline installations....

Larc Xv Operations Platform

Underwater Engineering Constructions

The LARC XV lighter amphibious re-supply cargo is a vehicle which is capable of being operated on both land and water. The amphibious lighter has an overall length of 45 feet, a maximum width of 14.5 feet, and a maximum height to the top of the cab of 13.7 feet. The total weight is approximately 75,000 pounds. The cargo deck, which is capable of transporting a maximum payload of 30,000 pounds, is 24 feet long, 13.5 feet wide, and has a depth of 3.2 feet. There is a loaded clearance of 1.5 feet...

Ground Marking For Scuba Diving

Record water depth below buoy of each connecting component. Record any manufacturer's markings. Past experience has indicated that the most severe wear occurs at the shackle connecting the mooring buoy padeye with the top link of chain. Special attention is required to inspect this shackle Measure the least diameter of the shackle pin. Inspect whether die pin exhibits any outward movement. Check and record the condition of locking wire or pin at the end of the...

Table 516 Replacement of Damaged Sheet Pile Wall

Drainage Behind Sheet Pile Wall

Problem Existing steel sheet pile structure has been damaged beyond repair by patching resulting in loss of backfill, weakened structure, and reduced vertical load capacity of deck. Repair involves the use of pile driving equipment and normally would not be done solely by UCT personnel. Description of Repairs A new steel sheet pile wall is installed outboard of the existing sheet pile and is joined to the existing sheet pile by a tie rod. Conduct a soils evaluation and diver inspection of...

Section 22 Underwater Tools

U.S. Navy diving manual, Vol 1 - Air diving. NAVSEA 0994-LP-001-9010, Rev 3. Naval Sea Systems Command 1991 . U.S. Navy diving manual, Vol 2-Mixed-gas diving. NAVSEA 0994-LP-001 -9020, Rev 3. NAVSEA Instruction 10560.2C 1994 . Diving equipment authorized for Navy use ANU . T.W. Ramset. 200HD tool operator's instruction and training manual. Section 2.2.1 Pneumatic Powered Tools Naval Facilities Engineering Command 1992 . Inspection and certification of boilers...

Deadman Anchor-heavy

Roadworks Trench Cable

Range pole configuration for cable landing. Global Positioning System GPS and Differential GPS are currendy in wide use. Other navigation-survey systems such as Super Hydro and the Diver Navigation System DNS are also used for cable route surveys. More information on navigation systems can be found in Section 4.4. 6.2.1.2 Trenching, Rock, and Berm Removal. During the planning stages a study should be made of the beach area and the effects of winds and waves. The information from this study will...

Concrete Encasement

Cathodic Protection Steel Pile Walls

Concrete encasement is generally used for concrete piles that have not deteriorated to the point that the pile is not intact and the steel reinforcing is in good shape. In some cases where the pile is broken, the reinforcing steel may be parallel spliced by welding as directed by engineering. The general procedures for repairing concrete using concrete encasement are described in Table 5-21. They are essentially the same as for steel piles as described in Section 5.5.1. Planning and estimating...

Larc Xv

Technique Underrunning Vessel

Dimensions of LARC V and LARC XV. Figure 6-7. OCEI Pengo puller-tensioner winch. Figure 6-7. OCEI Pengo puller-tensioner winch. ui itscnvv i un nvo MLLM iiOiV mUi .CUUMZS Environmental factors at the cable installation site may dictate the need for cable protection. Protection is usually provided to prevent impact and abrasion damage and to stabilize the cable against movement from the forces generated by wave and current action. Protection and stabilization techniques are separated...

Larc V Operations Platform

Larc Drive

The LARC V lighter amphibious resup-ply cargo is a vehicle capable of being operated on both land and water. The amphibious lighter has an overall length of 35 feet, a maximum width over the fenders of 10 feet, and a maximum height to the top of the cab of 10.17 feet. The total net weight, dry, is 19,000 pounds, while the total gross weight is approximately 30,000 pounds. The cargo deck, which is capable of transporting a maximum payload of 10,000 pounds, is 16 feet long, 9.75 feet wide, and...

LCU501 Class Operations Platform

114 Landing Craft Design

The LCU-501 class of utility landing craft were originally rated as landing craft, tank LCT 6 . In 1949, they were redesignated as utility landing ships LSU to reflect varied employment. In 1952, the designation was changed to utility landing craft LCU and they were classified as service craft. There are presently 23 active utility landing craft in the LCU-501 class series, the LCU-509, which was reclassified as YFU-54 in March of 1966, is typical of this class. The total overall length...

Geotechnical Divers Tool Impact Corer

Underwater Construction

Fix marks are inscribed on the chart by a FIX MARK switch a remote switch may be connected . The transducer is designed for precision survey work and other applications where a very narrow beam pattern is required. Such requirements result when extreme accuracy is needed in underwater laying of pipe or cable. The narrow beam pattern is also useful for more accurately defining steep sloping bottom contours and outlining relatively small bottom features. Bathymetric surveys may...

LCU1610 Class Operations Platform

Lcu 1610 Landing Craft

There are some 47 active utility landing craft in the LCU-1610 series four others have been reclassified as YFBs and seven as YFUs. These ships have an overall length of 136.25 feet and a length between perpendiculars of 134 feet. Beam is 29 feet and depth to the vehicle deck amidships is 8 feet with a bulkwark extending up to 12.5 feet. Landing displacement, carrying three T-43 tanks, is 374 tons which gives a draft forward of 3.92 feet and a draft aft of 7.13 feet. Light displacement is 193...

How To Set A Diving Rock Bolt

Auger Anchor Bolts

Grouted Fasteners - In areas of significant wave and current action, grouted-in copper-nickel or stainless steel U-rods, as illustrated in Figure 6-13, can be used to immobilize split-pipe covered cable. Properly installed U-rods provide an excellent immobilization technique, but require good diving conditions and considerable time. U-rods must be installed tight against the top of the split-pipe or the resulting split-pipe movement and abrasion may lead to failure. Grouted fasteners can...

Timber Piles

As described in Section 3.7, there are many causes of deterioration of timber piles in the marine environment. There are also many methods for the repair and maintenance of timber piles. Repair and maintenance methods fall into four categories Concrete encasement can be used for timber piles that have not deteriorated to less than 50 percent of their cross-section area. The general procedures for repairing timber using concrete encasement are described in Table 5-21. They are essentially the...