Propagation II mathematical models Part Two152

5.1 Background 152

5.2 Surface duct models 152

5.2.1 Ray-theory models 152

5.2.2 Wave-theory models 154

5.2.3 Oceanographic mixed-layer models 155

5.3 Shallow-water duct models 158

5.3.1 Shallow-water propagation characteristics 158

5.3.2 Optimum frequency of propagation 159

5.3.3 Numerical models 162

5.3.4 Empirical models 167

5.4 Arctic models 172

5.4.1 Arctic environmental models 172

5.4.2 Arctic propagation models 172

5.4.3 Numerical models 173

5.4.4 Empirical models 174

5.5 Data support requirements 176

5.5.1 Sound-speed profile synthesis 177

5.5.2 Earth curvature corrections 179

5.5.3 Merging techniques 180

5.6 Special applications and inverse techniques 180

5.6.1 Stochastic modeling 181

5.6.2 Broadband modeling 182

5.6.3 Matched field processing 183

5.6.4 Transmutation approaches 185

5.6.5 Chaos 186

5.6.6 Three-dimensional modeling 187

5.6.7 Ocean fronts, eddies and internal waves 188

5.6.8 Coupled ocean-acoustic modeling 193

5.6.9 Acoustic tomography 194

5.6.10 Phase conjugation and time-reversal mirrors 198

5.6.11 Deductive geoacoustic inversion 198

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