Propagation II mathematical models Part One99

4.1 Background 99

4.2 Theoretical basis for propagation modeling 100

4.2.1 Wave equation 100

4.2.2 Classification of modeling techniques 102

4.3 Ray-theory models 103

4.3.1 Basic theory 103

4.3.2 Caustics 106

4.3.3 Gaussian beam tracing 107

4.3.4 Range dependence 107

4.3.5 Arrival structure 109

4.3.6 Beam displacement 111

4.4 Normal-mode models 113

4.4.1 Basic theory 113

4.4.2 Normal-mode solution 114

4.4.3 Dispersion effects 116

4.4.4 Experimental measurements 117

4.4.5 Range dependence 118

4.4.6 High-frequency adaptations 120

4.4.7 Wedge modes 120

4.5 Multipath expansion models 121

4.6 Fast-field models 122

4.7 Parabolic equation models 123

4.7.1 Basic theory 124

4.7.2 Numerical techniques 126

4.7.3 Wide-angle and 3D adaptations 129

4.7.4 Range-refraction corrections 129

4.7.5 High-frequency adaptations 130

4.7.6 Time-domain applications 130

4.8 The RAYMODE model - a specific example 131

4.9 Numerical model summaries 135

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment