Propagation I observations and physical models57

3.1 Background 57

3.2 Nature of measurements 58

3.3 Basic concepts 59

3.4 Sea-surface boundary 65

3.4.1 Forward scattering and reflection loss 66

3.4.2 Image interference and frequency effects 67

3.4.3 Turbidity and bubbles 69

3.4.4 Ice interaction 70

3.4.5 Measurements 72

3.5 Sea-floor boundary 72

3.5.1 Forward scattering and reflection loss 73

3.5.2 Interference and frequency effects 78

3.5.3 Attenuation by sediments 78

3.5.4 Measurements 79

3.6 Attenuation and absorption in sea water 80

3.7 Surface ducts 82

3.7.1 Mixed-layer distribution 82

3.7.2 General propagation features 85

3.7.3 Low-frequency cutoff 88

3.8 Deep-sound channel 91

3.9 Convergence zones 93

3.10 Reliable acoustic path 94

3.11 Shallow-water ducts 94

3.12 Arctic half-channel 95

3.13 Coherence 97

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