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2 3 4 6 8 10 20 30 50 Range, r (km)

Figure 3.22 Surface duct TL estimates generated from the AMOS empirical relationships at a frequency of 2 kHz for various combinations of mixed layer depths, source depths (zs) and receiver depths (zr) (adapted from Condron et al, 1955, by Apel, 1987).

approximately 1,070 Hz (assuming that the sound speed is 1,500 ms-1). This relationship is illustrated in Figure 3.24 under the assumption that the speed of sound is fixed at 1,500 ms-1. Although this does not represent a sharp cutoff, wavelengths much longer (or frequencies much lower)

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