1,450 1,490 1,5300 50 100 150

□ Source O Receiver

Figure 4.17 RAYMODE ray trace diagram (Yarger, 1982).

of Figure 4.18:

1 Shallow water includes those water depths for which the sound can be expected to interact significantly with the sea floor.

2 The threshold frequency of 500 Hz is somewhat arbitrary, but it does reflect the fact that above 500 Hz, many wave-theoretical models become computationally intensive. Also, below 500 Hz, the physics of some ray-theoretical models may become questionable due to restrictive assumptions.

3 A solid circle indicates that the modeling approach is both applicable (physically) and practical (computationally). Distinctions based on speed of execution may change as progress is made in computational capabilities.

4 A partial circle indicates that the modeling approach has some limitations in accuracy or in speed of execution.

5 An open circle indicates that the modeling approach is neither applicable nor practical.

Table 4.1 identifies available stand-alone passive propagation models, which are categorized according to the five modeling approaches discussed earlier. (Stand-alone FE models are not included in this summary.) These

Model type


Shallow water

Deep water

Low frequency

High frequency

Low frequency

High frequency

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