Acoustical oceanography19

2.1 Background 19

2.2 Physical and chemical properties 19

2.2.1 Temperature distribution 21

2.2.2 Salinity distribution 22

2.2.3 Water masses 22

2.3 Sound speed 25

2.3.1 Calculation and measurements 25

2.3.2 Sound-speed distribution 28

2.4 Boundaries 35

2.4.1 Sea surface 35

2.4.2 Ice cover 38

2.4.3 Sea floor 39

2.5 Dynamic features 43

2.5.1 Large-scale features 43

2.5.2 Mesoscale features 44

2.5.3 Fine-scale features 54

2.6 Biologics 55

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