Medical causes

Nowadays they are the most frequent because of the frequency of medical procedures.

- Puncture of the central venous stems (subclavicular, jugular veins) and intravenous infusions are currently the major causes.

The literature estimates the risk between 1 per750 to 1 per 3000 central line placements59-61. GE can occur during either puncture or catheterization62, particularly if the patient is hypovolemic and/or the precaution of placing the patient in a slightly lowered position has not been taken. It can also occur during infusions e.g., if the tubing is not airtight or becomes disconnected as reported by Boussuges with an incidence of 80%, particularly with pressure-driven perfusion pumps59, or upon catheter removal.

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