During catheterisation of the right cardiac chambers

- during mechanical ventilation where the use of high pressures of insufflation can cause alveolar rupture with air passing into the interstitial tissue, the pleura, or the mediastinum and later into the vascular system. GE can be a complication of mechanical ventilation in status asthmaticus and acute respiratory distress syndromes in adults69 or children70. It frequently occurs at the beginning of the mechanical ventilation in trauma patients in case of lung trauma with intrathoracic vein injury54.

- during Extra-Corporeal Circulation (ECC) procedures using arteriovenous or venous-venous circuits such as haemodialysis, haemofiltration, or plasma exchange which cause GE, often in large volumes, because of the pumps in use on the circuit.

- other causes have also been reported: pacemaker insertion; digestive endoscopy71; peritoneal irrigation and lavage; foaming antiseptic solutions (particularly hydrogen peroxide which should never be used for lavage72).

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