Classification Of Soft Tissue Infections

There has been multiple descriptions of soft-tissue infections due to anaerobic germs. Altemeier1 and later Finegold2 proposed classifications based on clinical and bacteriological criteria. However, these classifications offer little to the clinical diagnostic process necessary to expedite appropriate management3. Nowadays, more and more authors use a clinico-anatomic classification which offers more practical advantages (Table 2.2.4-1)4'5. Thus depending on the tissue initially infected,...

Susceptibility of bacteria to oxygen

Bacteria can be sorted into the following groups depending on their tolerance to oxygen3-7 1. strictly aerobic bacteria those absolutely requiring molecular oxygen to develop since oxygen is the final obligatory electron acceptor, 2. microaerophiles those able to use oxygen but developing best in concentrations of oxygen lower than in air, 3. aero-anaerobes or facultative anaerobes those developing with or without oxygen since their metabolisms are based either on respiration or fermenting...

Anaerobic necrotizing fasciitis

Although the term necrotizing fasciitis was coined by Meleney in 1924 to designate gangrene related to haemolytic Streptococci29, since Wilson (1952)30 it is now used for a sub-cutaneous infection spreading along the deep fascia, causing secondary skin lesions and sparing muscles until late stages of infection. Many terms have been coined necrotizing fasciitis31-34 clostridial cellulitis35,36 non-clostridial crepitant cellulitis37 synergistic necrotizing cellulitis , and for penis and scrotum...

References

Etude de l'embolie gazeuse exp rimentale et de son traitement . Rev. Path. Gen. 1959, 59 891-896. 2. Adorn to D., Gildenberg P., Ferrario C., Smart J., Frost M. Pathophysiology of intravenous air embolism in dogs . Anesthesiology. 1978, 49, 2 120-127. 3. Spencer M., Oyama Y. Pulmonary capacity for dissipation of venous gaz emboli . Aerospace med. 1971, 42 822-827. 4. Tanus-Santos J., Gordo W., Udelsmann A., Cittadino M., Moreno H. Nonselective...

Literature review

The rationale for using HBO in acute traumatic ischemia is to increases tissue oxygen tensions in hypoxic tissues to levels which make it possible for the host responses to become functional. With HB0 at 240 kPa the haemoglobin-borne oxygen content is increased only from 19,8 ml of oxygen per dl blood to 20,4 ml O2, whereas plasma and tissue oxygen tensions increase tenfold. The resulting effect is that oxygen diffusion distance from capillaries is increased by a threefold factor (Krogh19)....

Risk factors

An important risk factor associated with osteoradionecrosis is the total radiation dose. Several authors found a total radiation dose greater than 6570 Gy as increasing the risk of osteoradionecrosis , - . Bedwinek found no osteoradionecrosis when the dose was less than 60 Gy, and 9 for doses greater than 70 Gy. Morrish37 found 0 incidence less than 65 Gy, 27.6 (dentulous patients) and 6.6 (edentulous patients) for 65 to 75 Gy, and 84.6 (dentulous patients) and 50 (edentulous patients) for...

Features of diffusion

At the microvascular level the delivery of oxygen to the tissues is achieved by diffusion. The driving force determining the amount of diffusion is the difference in partial pressures of the blood between the capillary and the mitochondria in adjacent cells. The quantity of diffusing agent per unit time (J) is proportional to the surface of diffusion (F), the absolute temperature (T) and the ideal gas constant (R) and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the solvents and the radius (r) of...

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

Several authors have studied the use of hyperbaric oxygen in patients with radiation cystitis174'178'206-221 (Table 2.2.8-3). Bevers206 reported a prospective study of 40 patients most of them required transfusion. Patients had received unsuccessful treatments clot evacuation, electrocoagulation, alum, tranexamic acid. They received 20 sessions of 100 oxygen at 3 bar pressure for 90 minutes, 5 or 6 times a week. In 4 patients, 40 sessions were given because of persistence of symptoms. Hematuria...

History Of Hyperbaric Medicine

Service d'Urgence Respiratoire, de R animation M dicale et de M decine Hyperbare, H pital Calmette, Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire, Lille, France Hyperbaric Medicine goes back a long way, since its history derives from the history of diving which dates back to ancient times. The history of Hyperbaric Medicine has been closely linked with the development of technology for underwater activities and the advance in knowledge about the physical laws and physiological mechanisms of breathing...

Contents

Physical and Pathophysiological Bases of Hyperbaric B. Ratzenhofer-Komenda, J. Niinikoski, M. Hamilton-Farell 1.1. Physics of Hyperbaric Pressure 15 W. Welslau 1.2. Biochemistry of Oxygen 25 1.3. Physiologic Effects of Increased Barometric Pressure 31 W. Welslau 1.4. Physiologic Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Oxygen Transport and Tissue Oxygen Pressure 49 B. Ratzenhofer-Komenda, R. Favory, W. Welslau, F.M. Smolle-J ttner, D. Mathieu 1.5. Physiologic Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Hemodynamics...

Mechanisms of hyperoxic vasoconstriction

Hyperoxic vasoconstriction does not seem to be of reflexive in origin. Differences in regional distribution, the vascular site of action88 and the decrease in sympathetic activity during hyperoxia11-13,89 argue against this theory. All authors agree that hyperoxic vasoconstriction is linked to regulatory mechanisms acting at the level of the microcirculation units. Whalen amp Nair81,82, were the first to show that cellular PO2 in muscles underwent no change in hyperoxia and that this was due to...