Equipment Authorized for Navy Use Only diving equipment that has been certi

fied or authorized for use by the NAVSEA/00C ANU list shall be used in a Navy dive. However, many items, such as hand tools, which are not specifically listed in the ANU list or do not fit under the scope of certification and are deemed valuable to the success of the dive, can be used. A current copy must be maintained by all diving activities. The ANU list can be found on the Internet at http:// www.navsea.navy.mil/sea00c/doc/anu_disc.html.

7-2.2 Open-Circuit Scuba. All open-circuit scuba authorized for Navy use employ a demand system that supplies air each time the diver inhales. The basic open-circuit scuba components are:

Demand regulator assembly One or more air cylinders Cylinder valve and manifold assembly Backpack or harness

7-2.2.1 Demand Regulator Assembly. The demand regulator assembly is the central component of the open-circuit system. The regulator delivers air to the diver after reducing the high-pressure air in the cylinder to a pressure that can be used by the diver. There are two stages in a typical system (Figure 7-1).

7-2.2.1.1 First Stage. In the regulator's first stage, high-pressure air from the cylinder passes through a regulator that reduces the pressure of the air to a predetermined level over ambient pressure. Refer to the regulator technical manual for the specific setting.

7-2.2.1.2 Second Stage. In the second stage of a regulator, a movable diaphragm is linked by a lever to the low-pressure valve, which leads to a low-pressure chamber. When the air pressure in the low-pressure chamber equals the ambient water pressure, the diaphragm is in the center position and the low-pressure valve is closed. When the diver inhales, the pressure in the low-pressure chamber is reduced, causing the diaphragm to be pushed inward by the higher ambient water pressure. The diaphragm actuates the low-pressure valve which opens, permitting air to flow to the diver. The greater the demand, the wider the low-pressure valve is opened, thus allowing more air flow to the diver. When the diver stops inhaling, the pressure on either side of the diaphragm is again balanced and the low-pressure valve closes. As the diver exhales, the exhausted air passes through at least one check valve and vents to the water.

7-2.2.1.3 Single Hose Regulators. In the single-hose, two-stage demand regulator the first stage is mounted on the cylinder valve assembly. The second-stage assembly includes the mouthpiece and a valve to exhaust exhaled air directly into the water. The two stages are connected by a length of low-pressure hose, which passes over the diver's right shoulder. The second stage has a purge button, which when activated allows low-pressure air to flow through the regulator and the mouthpiece, forcing out any water which may have entered the system. Buddy breathing (a diver providing air from the scuba to a partner) is more easily accomplished with the single-hose regulator. Use of an additional second stage regulator with an

Divers Regulator Diagrams

First Stage. High pressure air flows through the orifice of the first stage into the intermediate chamber. When the pressure in the intermediate chamber reaches ambient plus diaphragm balance spring set pressure, the first stage assembly closes.

Second Stage Valve Assembly

Second Stage. Upon inhalation the second stage diaphragm moves inward and the horseshoe lever opens the second stage valve assembly. Intermediate pressure air from the hoses is throttled across the orifice and fills the low pressure chamber to ambient pressure and flow is provided to the diver. Upon exhalation the diaphragm is pushed outward and the second stage in closed. Expired air is dumped from the low pressure chamber to the surrounding water through the exhaust valve.

Figure 7-1. Schematic of Demand Regulator.

octopus hose is an alternative and preferred method to accomplish buddy breathing. The principal disadvantages of the single-hose unit are an increased tendency to freeze up in very cold water and the exhaust of air in front of the diver's mask. While the Navy PMS system provides guidance for repairing and maintaining scuba regulators, the manufacturer's service manual should be followed for specific procedures.

7-2.2.1.4 Full Face Mask. The AGA/Divator full face mask may be used with an approved single-hose first-stage regulator with an octopus, to the maximum approved depth of the regulator, as indicated in the NAVSEA/00C ANU list (Figure 7-2).

Full Face Mask Mouthpiece
Figure 7-2. Full Face Mask.

7-2.2.1.5 Mouthpiece. The size and design of scuba mouthpieces differ between manufacturers, but each mouthpiece provides relatively watertight passageways for delivering breathing air into the diver's mouth. The mouthpiece should fit comfortably with slight pressure from the lips.

7-2.2.2 Cylinders. Scuba cylinders (tanks or bottles) are designed to hold high pressure compressed air. Because of the extreme stresses imposed on a cylinder at these pressures, all cylinders used in scuba diving must be inspected and tested periodically. Seamless steel or aluminum cylinders which meet Department of Transportation (DOT) specifications (DOT 3AA, DOT 3AL, DOT SP6498, and DOT E6498) are approved for Navy use. Each cylinder used in Navy operations must have identification symbols stamped into the shoulder (Figure 7-3).

7-2.2.2.1 Sizes of Approved Scuba Cylinders. Approved scuba cylinders are available in several sizes and one or two cylinders may be worn to provide the required quantity of air for the dive. The volume of a cylinder, expressed in actual cubic feet or

Cylinders Markings

Figure 7-3. Typical Gas Cylinder Identification Markings.

cubic inches, is a measurement of the internal volume of the cylinder. The capacity of a cylinder, expressed in standard cubic feet or liters, is the amount of gas (measured at surface conditions) that the cylinder holds when charged to its rated pressure. Table 7-1 lists the sizes of some standard scuba cylinders. Refer to the NAVSEA/00C ANU list for a list of approved scuba cylinders.

Table 7-1. Sample Scuba Cylinder Data.

Open-Circuit

Cylinder Description (Note 1)

Rated Working Pressure (PSIG)

Internal Volume (Cu.Ft.)

Absolute Air Capacity at Rated Pressure (Cu.Ft.)

Reserve Pressure

Outside Dimensions (Inches) (Dia.) (Length)

Steel 72

2,250

0.420

64.7

500

6.80

25.00

Aluminum 50

3,000

0.281

48.5

500

6.89

19.00

Aluminum 63

3,000

0.319

65.5

500

7.25

21.75

Aluminum 80

3,000

0.399

81.85

500

7.25

26.00

Note 1: Fifty cubic feet is the minimum size scuba cylinder authorized. SEAL teams are authorized smaller cylinders for special operations.

7-2.2.2.2 Inspection Requirements. Open-circuit scuba cylinders must be visually inspected at least once every 12 months and every time water or particulate matter is suspected in the cylinder. Cylinders containing visible accumulations of corrosion must be cleaned before being placed into service. Commercially available steel and aluminum scuba cylinders, as specified in the NAVSEA/00C ANU list, which meet DOT specifications, as well as scuba cylinders designed to Navy specifications, must be visually inspected at least annually and must be hydrostatically tested at least every five years in accordance with DOT regulations and Compressed Gas Association (CGA) pamphlets C-1 and C-6.

7-2.2.2.3 Guidelines for Handling Cylinders. General safety regulations governing the handling and use of compressed gas cylinders aboard Navy ships are contained in NAVSEA 0901-LP-230-0002, NSTM Chapter 550, "Compressed Gas Handling." Persons responsible for handling, storing, and charging scuba cylinders must be familiar with these regulations. Safety rules applying to scuba cylinders are contained in paragraph 7-4.5. Because scuba cylinders are subject to continuous handling and because of the hazards posed by a damaged unit, close adherence to the rules is mandatory.

7-2.2.3 Cylinder Valves and Manifold Assemblies. Cylinder valves and manifolds make up the system that passes the high-pressure air from the cylinders to the first-stage regulator. The cylinder valve serves as an on/off valve and is sealed to the tank by a straight-threaded male connection containing a neoprene O-ring on the valve's body.

7-2.2.3.1 Blowout Plugs and Safety Discs. The cylinder valve contains a high-pressure blowout plug or safety disc plug in the event of excessive pressure buildup. When a dual manifold is used, two blowout plugs or safety disc plugs are installed as specified by the manufacturers' technical manual.

For standard diving equipment, a safety disc plug similar to new issue equipment is recommended. The safety disc plug and safety disc are not always identified by a National Stock Number (NSN), but are available commercially.

7-2.2.3.2 Manifold Connectors. If two or more cylinders are to be used together, a manifold unit is needed to provide the necessary interconnection. Most manifolds incorporate an O-ring as a seal, but some earlier models may have a tapered (pipe) thread design. One type will not connect with the other type.

7-2.2.3.3 Pressure Gauge Requirements. A cylinder valve with an air reserve (J valve) is preferred. When a cylinder valve without an air reserve (K valve) is used, the scuba regulator must be equipped with a submersible pressure gauge to indicate pressure contents of the cylinder. The dive must be terminated when the cylinder pressure reaches 500 psi for a single cylinder or 250 psi for twin manifold cylinders. The air reserve mechanism alerts the diver that the available air supply is almost exhausted and provides the diver with sufficient reserve air to reach the surface. The air reserve mechanism contains a spring-loaded check valve. When it becomes increasingly difficult to obtain a full breath, the diver must reach over the left shoulder and push down the reserve lever, opening the reserve valve to make the remaining air available.

Dive planning should not extend bottom time by including the use of reserve air. The diver should never assume that the reserve air supply will be provided. When the resistance to breathing becomes obvious, the diver should notify the dive partner that the air supply is low and both should start for the surface immediately. The dive must be terminated when either diver shifts to reserve air.

7-2.2.4 Backpack or Harness. A variety of backpacks or harnesses, used for holding the scuba on the diver's back, have been approved for Navy use. The backpack may include a lightweight frame with the cylinder(s) held in place with clamps or straps. The usual system for securing the cylinder to the diver uses shoulder and waist straps. All straps must have a quick-release feature, easily operated by either hand, so that the diver can remove the cylinder and leave it behind in an emergency.

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