Surfacesupplied Diving Operations Predive Checklist

I. Diving Hoses:

1. Ensure all hoses have a clear lead and are protected from excessive heating and damage.

2. Check hose in accordance with PMS.

3. Ensure that the hose (or any length) has not been used in a burst test program. No hose length involved in such a program shall be part of an operational diving hose.

_4. Check that hoses are free of moisture, packing material, or chalk.

_5. Soap test hose connections after connection to air supply and pressurization.

_6. Ensure umbilical boots are in good condition.

J. Test Equipment with Activated Air Supply in accordance with approved OPs.

_ 1. Hook up all air hoses to helmets, masks and chamber; make connections between back-up supply and primary supply manifold.

2. Verify flow to helmets and masks.

3. Check all exhaust and non-return valves.

4. Hook up and test all communications.

_5. Check air flow from both primary and back-up supplies to chamber.

K. Recompression Chamber Checkout (Predive only):

_ 1. Check that chamber is completely free and clear of all combustible materials.

2. Check primary and back-up air supply to chamber and all pressure gauges.

3. Check that chamber is free of all odors or other "contaminants."

4. Hook up and test all communications.

_5. Check air flow from both primary and back-up supplies to chamber.

Final Preparations:

_ 1. Verify that all necessary records, logs, and timesheets are on the diving station.

2. Check that appropriate decompression tables are readily at hand.

3. Place the dressing bench in position, reasonably close to the diving ladder or stage, to minimize diver travel.

Figure 6-21c. Surface-Supplied Diving Operations Predive Checklist (sheet 3 of 3). CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning

Unexpected developments or emergency situations may be accompanied by confusion. The source and availability of any needed assistance and the method for obtaining it as quickly as possible, shall be determined in advance. The location of the nearest recompression chamber shall be identified and the chamber operators notified before the operation begins. The sources of emergency transportation, military or civilian, shall be established and alerted and the nearest Diving Medical Officer should be located and notified. Arrangements must be made to ensure a 24-hour availability for emergency assistance.

When a recompression chamber is required by Figure 6-14, the chamber shall be currently certified and within 30 minutes' travel time from the dive site. If a recompression chamber is required in an emergency, a non-certified chamber may be used if the Diving Supervisor is of the opinion that it is safe to operate.

Figure 6-22 is a suggested format for the Emergency Assistance Checklist that shall be completed and posted at the diving station to provide necessary information so that any member of the team could take prompt action.

6-12.5.1 Notification of Ship's Personnel. In the event of a diving casualty or mishap on dive station, calm must be maintained. Maintain silence on the side and take orders from the Diving Officer, Master Diver, and/or Diving Supervisor.

6-12.5.2 Fouling and Entrapment. Fouling and entrapment are more common with surface-supplied gear than scuba because of the ease with which the umbilicals can become entangled. Divers shall be particularly careful and watch their own umbilicals and those of their partners as well.

The surface-supplied diver may become fouled more easily, but will usually have an ample air supply while working to get free. The scuba diver may have no other recourse but to remove the gear and make a free ascent. If trapped, the scuba diver must face the possibility of running out of air before being able to work free.

The first and most important action that a trapped diver can take is to stop and think. The diver shall remain calm, analyze the situation, and carefully try to work free. Panic and overexertion are the greatest dangers to the trapped diver. If the situation cannot be resolved readily, help should be obtained. A new umbilical can be provided to the surface-supplied diver; the scuba diver can be given a new apparatus or may be furnished air by the dive partner.

Once the diver has been freed and returns to the surface, the diver shall be examined and treated, bearing in mind the following considerations:

The diver will probably be overtired and emotionally exhausted.

The diver may be suffering from or approaching hypothermia.

The diver may have a physical injury.

EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CHECKLIST RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER GAS SUPPLIES

Location

Location

Name/Phone Number

Name/Phone Number

Response Time

Response Time

AIR TRANSPORTATION

COMMUNICATIONS

Location

Location

Name/Phone Number

Name/Phone Number

Response Time

Response Time

SEA TRANSPORTATION

DIVING UNITS

Location

Location

Name/Phone Number

Name/Phone Number

Response Time

Response Time

HOSPITAL

COMMAND

Location

Location

Name/Phone Number

Name/Phone Number

Response Time

Response Time

DIVING MEDICAL OFFICER

Location

Name/Phone Number Response Time

EMERGENCY CONSULTATION Duty Phone Numbers 24 Hours a Day Navy Experimental Dive Unit (NEDU)

Commercial (850) 234-4351 (850) 230-3100 DSN 436-4351 Navy Diving Salvage and Training Center (NDSTC)

Commercial (850) 234-4651 DSN 436-4651

Figure 6-22. Emergency Assistance Checklist.

CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning

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A scuba diver may be suffering from asphyxia. If a free ascent has been made, gas embolism may have developed.

Significant decompression time may have been missed.

6-12.5.3 Equipment Failure. With well-maintained equipment that is thoroughly inspected and tested before each dive, operational failure is rarely a problem. When a failure does occur, the correct procedures will depend upon the type of equipment and dive. As with most emergencies, the training and experience of the diver and the diving team will be the most important factor in resolving the situation safely.

6-12.5.3.1 Loss of Gas Supply. Usually, when a diver loses breathing gas it should be obvious almost immediately. Some diving apparatus configurations may have an emergency gas supply (EGS). When breathing gas is interrupted, the dive shall be aborted and the diver surfaced as soon as possible. Surfacing divers may be suffering from hypoxia, hypercapnia, missed decompression, or a combination of the three, and should be treated accordingly.

6-12.5.3.2 Loss of Communications. If audio communications are lost with surface-supplied gear, the system may have failed or the diver could be in trouble. If communications are lost:

1. Use line-pull signals at once. Depth, current, bottom or work site conditions may interfere.

2. Check the rising bubbles of air. A cessation or marked decrease of bubbles could be a sign of trouble.

3. Listen for sounds from the diving helmet. If no sound is heard, the circuit is probably out of order. If the flow of bubbles seems normal, the diver may be all right.

4. If sounds are heard and the diver does not respond to signals, assume the diver is in trouble.

5. Have divers already on the bottom investigate, or send down the standby diver to do so.

6-12.5.4 Lost Diver. In planning for an operation using scuba, lost diver procedures shall be included in the dive plan and dive brief. Losing contact with a scuba diver can be the first sign of a serious problem. If contact between divers is lost, each diver shall surface. If the diver is not located quickly, or not found at the surface following correct lost communications procedure, the Diving Supervisor shall initiate search procedures immediately. At the same time, medical personnel should be notified and the recompression chamber team alerted.

A lost diver is often disoriented and confused and may have left the operating area. Nitrogen narcosis or other complications involving the breathing mixture, which can result in confusion, dizziness, anxiety, or panic, are common in recovered lost divers. The diver may harm the rescuers unknowingly. When the diver is located, the rescuer should approach with caution to prevent being harmed and briefly analyze the stricken diver's condition.

If the diver is found unconscious, attempts should be made to resupply breathing gas and restore consciousness. If this cannot be accomplished, the diver shall be brought to the surface immediately. Gas Embolism may occur during ascent and significant decompression may be missed and immediate recompression may be required. If it is possible to provide the diver with an air supply such as a singlehose demand scuba, the rescuer should do so during the ascent.

6-12.5.5 Debriefing the Diving Team. After the day's diving has been completed (or after a shift has finished work if the operation is being carried on around the clock), all members of the diving team should be brought together for a short debriefing of the day's activities. This offers all personnel a chance to provide feedback to the Diving Supervisor and other members of the team. This group interaction can help clarify any confusion that may have arisen because of faulty communications, lack of dive site information, or misunderstandings from the initial briefing.

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