Mixed-gas diving operations are conducted using a breathing medium other than air. This medium may consist of:
Nitrogen and oxygen in proportions other than those found in the atmosphere A mixture of other inert gases, such as helium, with oxygen.
The breathing medium can also be 100 percent oxygen, which is not a mixed gas, but which requires training for safe use. Air may be used in some phases of a mixed-gas dive.
Mixed-gas diving is a complex undertaking. A mixed-gas diving operation requires extensive special training, detailed planning, specialized and advanced equipment and, in many applications, requires extensive surface-support personnel and facilities. Because mixed-gas operations are often conducted at great depth or for extended periods of time, hazards to personnel increase greatly. Divers studying mixed-gas diving must first be qualified in air diving operations.
In recent years, to match basic operational requirements and capabilities, the U.S. Navy has divided mixed-gas diving into two categories:
■ Nonsaturation diving without a pressurized bell to a maximum depth of 300 fsw, and
■ Saturation diving for dives of 150 fsw and greater depth or for extended bottom time missions.
The 300-foot limit is based primarily on the increased risk of decompression sickness when nonsaturation diving techniques are used deeper than 300 fsw.
1-4.1.1 Helium-Oxygen (HeO2) Diving. An inventor named Elihu Thomson theorized that helium might be an appropriate substitute for the nitrogen in a diver's breathing supply. He estimated that at least a 50-percent gain in working depth could be achieved by substituting helium for nitrogen. In 1919, he suggested that the U.S. Bureau of Mines investigate this possibility. Thomson directed his suggestion to the Bureau of Mines rather than the Navy Department, since the Bureau of Mines held a virtual world monopoly on helium marketing and distribution.
1-18.104.22.168 Experiments with Helium-Oxygen Mixtures. In 1924, the Navy and the Bureau of Mines jointly sponsored a series of experiments using helium-oxygen mixtures. The preliminary work was conducted at the Bureau of Mines Experimental Station in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Figure 1-14 is a picture of an early Navy helium-oxygen diving manifold.
The first experiments showed no detrimental effects on test animals or humans from breathing a helium-oxygen mixture, and decompression time was shortened. The principal physiological effects noted by divers using helium-oxygen were:
Increased sensation of cold caused by the high thermal conductivity of helium
■ The high-pitched distortion or "Donald Duck" effect on human speech that resulted from the acoustic properties and reduced density of the gas
These experiments clearly showed that helium-oxygen mixtures offered great advantages over air for deep dives. They laid the foundation for developing the reliable decompression tables and specialized apparatus, which are the cornerstones of modern deep diving technology.
In 1937, at the Experimental Diving Unit research facility, a diver wearing a deep-sea diving dress with a helium-oxygen breathing supply was compressed in a chamber to a simulated depth of 500 feet. The diver was not told the depth and when asked to make an estimate of the depth, the diver reported that it felt as if he were at 100 feet. During decompression at the 300-foot mark, the breathing mixture was switched to air and the diver was troubled immediately by nitrogen narcosis.
The first practical test of helium-oxygen came in 1939, when the submarine USS Squalus was salvaged from a depth of 243 fsw. In that year, the Navy issued decompression tables for surface-supplied helium-oxygen diving.
1-22.214.171.124 MK V MOD 1 Helmet. Because helium was expensive and shipboard supplies were limited, the standard MK V MOD 0 open-circuit helmet was not economical for surface-supplied helium-oxygen diving. After experimenting with several different designs, the U.S. Navy adopted the semiclosed-circuit MK V MOD 1 (Figure 1-15).
The MK V MOD 1 helmet was equipped with a carbon dioxide absorption canister and venturi-powered recirculator assembly. Gas in the helmet was continuously recirculated through the carbon dioxide scrubber assembly by the venturi. By removing carbon dioxide by scrubbing rather than ventilating the helmet, the fresh gas flow into the helmet was reduced to the amount required to replenish oxygen. The gas consumption of the semiclosed-circuit MK V MOD 1 was approximately 10 percent of that of the open-circuit MK V MOD 0.
The MK V MOD 1, with breastplate and recirculating gas canister, weighed approximately 103 pounds compared to 56 pounds for the standard air helmet and breastplate. It was fitted with a lifting ring at the top of the helmet to aid in hatting the diver and to keep the weight off his shoulders until he was lowered into the water. The diver was lowered into and raised out of the water by a diving stage connected to an onboard boom.
1-126.96.36.199 Civilian Designers. U.S. Navy divers were not alone in working with mixed gases or helium. In 1937, civilian engineer Max Gene Nohl reached 420 feet in Lake Michigan while breathing helium-oxygen and using a suit of his own design. In 1946, civilian diver Jack Browne, designer of the lightweight diving mask that bears his name, made a simulated helium-oxygen dive of 550 feet. In 1948, a British Navy diver set an open-sea record of 540 fsw while using war-surplus helium provided by the U.S.
1-4.1.2 Hydrogen-Oxygen Diving. In countries where the availability of helium was more restricted, divers experimented with mixtures of other gases. The most notable example is that of the Swedish engineer Arne Zetterstrom, who worked with hydrogen-oxygen mixtures. The explosive nature of such mixtures was well known, but it was also known that hydrogen would not explode when used in a mixture of less than 4 percent oxygen. At the surface, this percentage of oxygen would not be sufficient to sustain life; at 100 feet, however, the oxygen partial pressure would be the equivalent of 16 percent oxygen at the surface.
Zetterstrom devised a simple method for making the transition from air to hydrogen-oxygen without exceeding the 4-percent oxygen limit. At the 100-foot level, he replaced his breathing air with a mixture of 96 percent nitrogen and 4 percent oxygen. He then replaced that mixture with hydrogen-oxygen in the same proportions. In 1945, after some successful test dives to 363 feet, Zetterstrom reached 528 feet. Unfortunately, as a result of a misunderstanding on the part of his topside support personnel, he was brought to the surface too rapidly. Zetterstrom did not have time to enrich his breathing mixture or to adequately decompress and died as a result of the effects of his ascent.
1-4.1.3 Modern Surface-Supplied Mixed-Gas Diving. The U.S. Navy and the Royal Navy continued to develop procedures and equipment for surface-supplied helium-oxygen diving in the years following World War II. In 1946, the Admiralty Experimental Diving Unit was established and, in 1956, during open-sea tests of helium-oxygen diving, a Royal Navy diver reached a depth of 600 fsw. Both navies conducted helium-oxygen decompression trials in an attempt to develop better procedures.
In the early 1960s, a young diving enthusiast from Switzerland, Hannes Keller, proposed techniques to attain great depths while minimizing decompression requirements. Using a series of gas mixtures containing varying concentrations of oxygen, helium, nitrogen, and argon, Keller demonstrated the value of elevated oxygen pressures and gas sequencing in a series of successful dives in mountain lakes. In 1962, with partial support from the U.S. Navy, he reached an open-sea depth of more than 1,000 fsw off the California coast. Unfortunately, this dive was marred by tragedy. Through a mishap unrelated to the technique itself, Keller lost consciousness on the bottom and, in the subsequent emergency decompression, Keller's companion died of decompression sickness.
By the late 1960s, it was clear that surface-supplied diving deeper than 300 fsw was better carried out using a deep diving (bell) system where the gas sequencing techniques pioneered by Hannes Keller could be exploited to full advantage, while maintaining the diver in a state of comfort and security. The U.S. Navy developed decompression procedures for bell diving systems in the late 1960s and early 1970s. For surface-supplied diving in the 0-300 fsw range, attention was turned to developing new equipment to replace the cumbersome MK V MOD 1 helmet.
1-4.1.4 MK 1 MOD 0 Diving Outfit. The new equipment development proceeded along two parallel paths, developing open-circuit demand breathing systems suitable for deep helium-oxygen diving, and developing an improved recirculating helmet to replace the MK V MOD 1. By the late 1960s, engineering improvements in demand regulators had reduced breathing resistance on deep dives to acceptable levels. Masks and helmets incorporating the new regulators became commercially available. In 1976, the U.S. Navy approved the MK 1 MOD 0 Lightweight, Mixed-Gas Diving Outfit for dives to 300 fsw on helium-oxygen (Figure 1-16). The MK 1 MOD 0 Diving Outfit incorporated a full face mask (bandmask) featuring a demand open-circuit breathing regulator and a backpack for an emergency gas supply. Surface contact was maintained through an umbilical that included the breathing gas hose, communications cable, lifeline strength member and pneumofathometer hose. The diver was dressed in a dry suit or hot water suit depending on water temperature. The equipment was issued as a lightweight diving outfit in a system with sufficient equipment to support a diving operation employing two working divers and a standby diver. The outfit was used in conjunction with an open diving bell that replaced the traditional diver's stage and added additional safety. In 1990, the MK 1 MOD 0 was replaced by the MK 21 MOD 1 (Superlite 17 B/NS) demand helmet. This is the lightweight rig in use today.
In 1985, after an extensive development period, the direct replacement for the MK V MOD 1 helmet was approved for Fleet use. The new MK 12 Mixed-Gas Surface-Supplied Diving System (SSDS) was similar to the MK 12 Air SSDS, with the addition of a backpack assembly to allow operation in a semiclosed-circuit mode. The MK 12 system was retired in 1992 after the introduction of the MK 21 MOD 1 demand helmet.
1-4.2 Diving Bells. Although open, pressure-balanced diving bells have been used for several centuries, it was not until 1928 that a bell appeared that was capable of maintaining internal pressure when raised to the surface. In that year, Sir Robert H. Davis, the British pioneer in diving equipment, designed the Submersible Decompression Chamber (SDC). The vessel was conceived to reduce the time a diver had to remain in the water during a lengthy decompression.
The Davis SDC was a steel cylinder capable of holding two men, with two inward-opening hatches, one on the top and one on the bottom. A surface-supplied diver was deployed over the side in the normal mode and the bell was lowered to a depth of 60 fsw with the lower hatch open and a tender inside. Surface-supplied air ventilated the bell and prevented flooding. The diver's deep decompression stops were taken in the water and he was assisted into the bell by the tender upon arrival at 60 fsw. The diver's gas supply hose and communications cable were removed from the helmet and passed out of the bell. The lower door was closed and the bell was lifted to the deck where the diver and tender were decompressed within the safety and comfort of the bell.
By 1931, the increased decompression times associated with deep diving and the need for diver comfort resulted in the design of an improved bell system. Davis designed a three-compartment deck decompression chamber (DDC) to which the SDC could be mechanically mated, permitting the transfer of the diver under pressure. The DDC provided additional space, a bunk, food and clothing for the diver's comfort during a lengthy decompression. This procedure also freed the SDC for use by another diving team for continuous diving operations.
The SDC-DDC concept was a major advance in diving safety, but was not applied to American diving technology until the advent of saturation diving. In 1962, E. A. Link employed a cylindrical, aluminum SDC in conducting his first open-sea saturation diving experiment. In his experiments, Link used the SDC to transport the diver to and from the sea floor and a DDC for improved diver comfort. American diving had entered the era of the Deep Diving System (DDS) and advances and applications of the concept grew at a phenomenal rate in both military and commercial diving.
1-4.3 Saturation Diving. As divers dove deeper and attempted more ambitious under water tasks, a safe method to extend actual working time at depth became crucial. Examples of saturation missions include submarine rescue and salvage, sea bed implantments, construction, and scientific testing and observation. These types of operations are characterized by the need for extensive bottom time and, consequently, are more efficiently conducted using saturation techniques.
1-4.3.1 Advantages of Saturation Diving. In deep diving operations, decompression is the most time-consuming factor. For example, a diver working for an hour at 200 fsw would be required to spend an additional 3 hours and 20 minutes in the water undergoing the necessary decompression.
However, once a diver becomes saturated with the gases that make decompression necessary, the diver does not need additional decompression. When the blood and tissues have absorbed all the gas they can hold at that depth, the time required for decompression becomes constant. As long as the depth is not increased, additional time on the bottom is free of any additional decompression.
If a diver could remain under pressure for the entire period of the required task, the diver would face a lengthy decompression only when completing the project. For a 40-hour task at 200 fsw, a saturated diver would spend 5 days at bottom pressure and 2 days in decompression, as opposed to spending 40 days making 1-hour dives with long decompression periods using conventional methods.
The U.S. Navy developed and proved saturation diving techniques in its Sealab series. Advanced saturation diving techniques are being developed in ongoing programs of research and development at the Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU), Navy Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL), and many institutional and commercial hyperbaric facilities. In addition, saturation diving using Deep Diving Systems (DDS) is now a proven capability.
1-4.3.2 Bond's Saturation Theory. True scientific impetus was first given to the saturation concept in 1957 when a Navy diving medical officer, Captain George F. Bond, theorized that the tissues of the body would eventually become saturated with inert gas if exposure time was long enough. Bond, then a commander and the director of the Submarine Medical Center at New London, Connecticut, met with Captain Jacques-Yves Cousteau and determined that the data required to prove the theory of saturation diving could be developed at the Medical Center.
1-4.3.3 Genesis Project. With the support of the U.S. Navy, Bond initiated the Genesis Project to test the theory of saturation diving. A series of experiments, first with test animals and then with humans, proved that once a diver was saturated, further extension of bottom time would require no additional decompression time. Project Genesis proved that men could be sustained for long periods under pressure, and what was then needed was a means to put this concept to use on the ocean floor.
1-4.3.4 Developmental Testing. Several test dives were conducted in the early 1960s:
The first practical open-sea demonstrations of saturation diving were undertaken in September 1962 by Edward A. Link and Captain Jacques-Yves Cousteau.
■ Link's Man-in-the-Sea program had one man breathing helium-oxygen at 200 fsw for 24 hours in a specially designed diving system.
Cousteau placed two men in a gas-filled, pressure-balanced underwater habitat at 33 fsw where they stayed for 169 hours, moving freely in and out of their deep-house.
■ Cousteau's Conshelf One supported six men breathing nitrogen-oxygen at 35 fsw for 7 days.
In 1964, Link and Lambertsen conducted a 2-day exposure of two men at 430 fsw.
■ Cousteau's Conshelf Two experiment maintained a group of seven men for 30 days at 36 fsw and 90 fsw with excursion dives to 330 fsw.
1-4.3.5 Sealab Program. The best known U.S. Navy experimental effort in saturation diving was the Sealab program.
1-188.8.131.52 Sealabs I and II. After completing the Genesis Project, the Office of Naval Research, the Navy Mine Defense Laboratory and Bond's small staff of volunteers gathered in Panama City, Florida, where construction and testing of the Sealab I habitat began in December 1963.
In 1964, Sealab I placed four men underwater for 10 days at an average depth of 192 fsw. The habitat was eventually raised to 81 fsw, where the divers were transferred to a decompression chamber that was hoisted aboard a four-legged offshore support structure.
In 1965, Sealab II put three teams of ten men each in a habitat at 205 fsw. Each team spent 15 days at depth and one man, Astronaut Scott Carpenter, remained for 30 days (see Figure 1-17).
1-184.108.40.206 Sealab III. The follow-on seafloor experiment, Sealab III, was planned for 600 fsw. This huge undertaking required not only extensive development and testing of equipment but also assessment of human tolerance to high-pressure environments.
To prepare for Sealab III, 28 helium-oxygen saturation dives were performed at the Navy Experimental Diving Unit to depths of 825 fsw between 1965 and 1968. In 1968, a record-breaking excursion dive to 1,025 fsw from a saturation depth of 825 fsw was performed at the Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU). The culmination of this series of dives was a 1,000 fsw, 3-day saturation dive conducted jointly by the U.S. Navy and Duke University in the hyperbaric chambers at Duke. This was the first time man had been saturated at 1,000 fsw. The Sealab III preparation experiments showed that men could readily perform useful work at pressures up to 31 atmospheres and could be returned to normal pressure without harm.
Reaching the depth intended for the Sealab III habitat required highly specialized support, including a diving bell to transfer divers under pressure from the habitat to a pressurized deck decompression chamber. The experiment, however, was marred by tragedy. Shortly after being compressed to 600 fsw in February 1969, Aquanaut Berry Cannon convulsed and drowned. This unfortunate accident ended the Navy's involvement with seafloor habitats.
1-220.127.116.11 Continuing Research. Research and development continues to extend the depth limit for saturation diving and to improve the diver's capability. The deepest dive attained by the U.S. Navy to date was in 1979 when divers from the NEDU completed a 37-day, 1,800 fsw dive in its Ocean Simulation Facility. The world record depth for experimental saturation, attained at Duke University in 1981, is 2,250 fsw, and non-Navy open sea dives have been completed to in excess of 2300 fsw. Experiments with mixtures of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen have begun and the success of this mixture was demonstrated in 1988 in an open-sea dive to 1,650 fsw.
Advanced saturation diving techniques are being developed in ongoing programs of research and development at NEDU, Navy Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL), and many institutional and commercial hyperbaric facilities. In addition, saturation diving using Deep Diving Systems (DDS) is now a proven capability.
1-4.4 Deep Diving Systems (DDS). Experiments in saturation technique required substantial surface support as well as extensive underwater equipment. DDS are a substantial improvement over previous methods of accomplishing deep undersea work. The DDS is readily adaptable to saturation techniques and safely maintains the saturated diver under pressure in a dry environment. Whether employed for saturation or nonsaturation diving, the Deep Diving System totally eliminates long decompression periods in the water where the diver is subjected to extended environmental stress. The diver only remains in the sea for the time spent on a given task. Additional benefits derived from use of the DDS include eliminating the need for underwater habitats and increasing operational flexibility for the surface-support ship.
The Deep Diving System consists of a Deck Decompression Chamber (DDC) mounted on a surface-support ship. A Personnel Transfer Capsule (PTC) is mated to the DDC, and the combination is pressurized to a storage depth. Two or more divers enter the PTC, which is unmated and lowered to the working depth. The interior of the capsule is pressurized to equal the pressure at depth, a hatch is opened, and one or more divers swim out to accomplish their work. The divers can use a self-contained breathing apparatus with a safety tether to the capsule, or employ a mask and an umbilical that provides breathing gas and communications. Upon completing the task, the divers enters the capsule, close the hatch and return to the support ship with the interior of the PTC still at the working pressure. The capsule is hoisted aboard and mated to the pressurized DDC. The divers enter the larger, more comfortable DDC via an entry lock. They remain in the DDC until they must return to the undersea job site. Decompression is carried out comfortably and safely on the support ship.
The Navy developed four deep diving systems: ADS-IV, MK 1 MOD 0, MK 2 MOD 0, and MK 2 MOD 1.
1-4.4.1 ADS-IV. Several years prior to the Sealab I experiment, the Navy successfully deployed the Advanced Diving System IV (ADS-IV) (see Figure 1-18). The ADS-IV was a small deep diving system with a depth capability of 450 fsw. The ADS-IV was later called the SDS-450.
1-4.4.2 MK 1 MOD 0. The MK 1 MOD 0 DDS was a small system intended to be used on the new ATS-1 class salvage ships, and underwent operational evaluation in 1970. The DDS consisted of a Personnel Transfer Capsule (PTC) (see Figure 1-19), a life-support system, main control console and two deck decompression chambers to handle two teams of two divers each. This system was also used to operationally evaluate the MK 11 UBA, a semiclosed-circuit mixed-gas apparatus, for saturation diving. The MK 1 MOD 0 DDS conducted an open-sea dive to 1,148 fsw in 1975. The MK 1 DDS was not installed on the ATS ships as originally planned, but placed on a barge and assigned to Harbor Clearance Unit Two. The system went out of service in 1977.
Figure 1-19. DDS MK 1 Personnel Transfer Capsule. Figure 1-20. PTC Handling System, Elk
Figure 1-19. DDS MK 1 Personnel Transfer Capsule. Figure 1-20. PTC Handling System, Elk
1-4.4.3 MK 2 MOD 0. The Sealab III experiment required a much larger and more capable deep diving system than the MK 1 MOD 0. The MK 2 MOD 0 was constructed and installed on the support ship Elk River (IX-501). With this system, divers could be saturated in the deck chamber under close observation and then transported to the habitat for the stay at depth, or could cycle back and forth between the deck chamber and the seafloor while working on the exterior of the habitat.
The bell could also be used in a non-pressurized observation mode. The divers would be transported from the habitat to the deck decompression chamber, where final decompression could take place under close observation.
1-4.4.4 MK 2 MOD 1. Experience gained with the MK 2 MOD 0 DDS on board Elk River (IX-501) (see Figure 1-20) led to the development of the MK 2 MOD 1, a larger, more sophisticated DDS. The MK 2 MOD 1 DDS supported two four-man teams for long term saturation diving with a normal depth capability of 850 fsw. The diving complex consisted of two complete systems, one at starboard and one at port. Each system had a DDC with a life-support system, a PTC, a main control console, a strength-power-communications cable (SPCC) and ship support. The two systems shared a helium-recovery system. The MK 2 MOD 1 was installed on the ASR 21 Class submarine rescue vessels.
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