List of Illustrations

Figure Page

1-1 Early Impractical Breathing Device 1-2

1-3 Engraving of Halley's Diving Bell 1-4

1-4 Lethbridge's Diving Suit 1-4

1-5 Siebe's First Enclosed Diving Dress and Helmet 1-5

1-6 French Caisson 1-5

1-7 Armored Diving Suit 1-7

1-9 Fleuss Apparatus 1-11

1-10 Original Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus 1-13

1-11 Lambertsen Amphibious Respiratory Unit (LARU) 1-14

1-12 Emerson-Lambertsen Oxygen Rebreather 1-15

1-13 Draeger LAR V UBA 1-15

1-14 Helium-Oxygen Diving Manifold 1-17

1-15 MK V MOD 1 Helmet 1-18

1-16 MK 1 MOD 0 Diving Outfit 1-20

1-17 Sealab II 1-23

1-19 DDS MK 1 Personnel Transfer Capsule 1-25

1-20 PTC Handling System, Elk River 1-25

1-21 Recovery of the Squalus 1-28

2-1 Molecules 2-2

2-2 The Three States of Matter 2-2

2-3 Temperature Scales 2-3

2-4 The Six Form of Energy 2-4

2-5 Objects Underwater Appear Closer 2-5

2-6 Kinetic Energy 2-17

2-7 Depth, Pressure, Atmosphere Graph 2-36

3-1 The Heart's Components and Blood Flow 3-3

3-2 Respiration and Blood Circulation 3-4

3-3 Inspiration Process 3-7

3-4 Lungs Viewed from Medial Aspect 3-7

3-5 Lung Volumes 3-8

3-6 Oxygen Consumption and RMV at Different Work Rates 3-12

3-7 Gross Anatomy of the Ear in Frontal Section 3-22

3-8 Location of the Sinuses in the Human Skull 3-24

3-9 Impedance Matching Components of Inner Ear 3-27

3-10 Pulmonary Overinflation Consequences 3-29

3-11 Arterial Gas Embolism 3-30

3-12 Mediastinal Emphysema 3-31

3-13 Subcutaneous Emphysema 3-32

3-14 Pneumothorax 3-33

3-15 Tension Pneumothorax 3-34

3-16 Nitrogen Narcosis 3-35

3-17 Saturation of Tissues 3-39

3-18 Desaturation of Tissues 3-41

5-2a Equipment Accident/Incident Information Sheet 5-5

5-2b Equipment Accident/Incident Information Sheet 5-6

5-3 Failure Analysis Report (NAVSEA Form 10560/4) 5-7

5-4 Failure Analysis Report. (NAVSEA Form 10560/1) 5-8

1A-1 Sonar Safe Diving Distance/Exposure Time Worksheet 1A-4

1A-2 Sonar Safe Diving Distance/Exposure Time Worksheet (Completed Example) 1A-8

1A-3 Sonar Safe Diving Distance/Exposure Time Worksheet (Completed Example) 1A-9

1A-4 Sonar Safe Diving Distance/Exposure Time Worksheet (Completed Example) 1A-10

1A-5 Sonar Safe Diving Distance/Exposure Time Worksheet (Completed Example) 1A-11

6-1 Underwater Ship Husbandry Diving 6-3

6-2 Salvage Diving 6-4

6-3 Explosive Ordnance Disposal Diving 6-5

6-4 Underwater Construction Diving 6-6

6-5 Planning Data Sources 6-8

6-6 Environmental Assessment Worksheet 6-10

6-7 Sea State Chart 6-11

6-8 Equivalent Windchill Temperature Chart 6-12

6-9 Pneumofathometer 6-13

6-10 Bottom Conditions and Effects Chart 6-14

6-11 Water Temperature Protection Chart 6-16

6-12 International Code Signal Flags 6-21

6-13 Air Diving Techniques 6-22

6-14 Normal and Maximum Limits for Air Diving 6-23

6-15 MK 21 Dive Requiring Two Divers 6-27

6-16 Minimum Personnel Levels for Air Diving Stations 6-28

6-17 Master Diver Supervising Recompression Treatment 6-30

6-18 Standby Diver 6-32

6-19a Diving Safety and Planning Checklist (sheet 1 of 4) 6-39

6-19b Diving Safety and Planning Checklist (sheet 2 of 4) 6-40

6-19c Diving Safety and Planning Checklist (sheet 3 of 4) 6-41

6-19d Diving Safety and Planning Checklist (sheet 4 of 4) 6-42

6-20a Ship Repair Safety Checklist for Diving (sheet 1 of 2) 6-43

6-20b Ship Repair Safety Checklist for Diving (sheet 2 of 2) 6-44

6-21a Surface-Supplied Diving Operations Predive Checklist (sheet 1 of 3) 6-45

6-21b Surface-Supplied Diving Operations Predive Checklist (sheet 2 of 3) 6-46

6-21c Surface-Supplied Diving Operations Predive Checklist (sheet 3 of 3) 6-47

6-22 Emergency Assistance Checklist 6-49

6-23 Scuba General Characteristics 6-52

6-24 MK 20 MOD 0 General Characteristics 6-53

6-25 MK 21 MOD 1 General Characteristics 6-54

7-1 Schematic of Demand Regulator 7-3

7-2 Full Face Mask 7-4

7-3 Typical Gas Cylinder Identification Markings 7-5

7-4 MK-4 Life Preserver 7-8

7-5 Protective Clothing 7-11

7-6 Oxygen Consumption and RMV at Different Work Rates 7-15

7-7 Cascading System for Charging Scuba Cylinders 7-17

7-8a Scuba Entry Techniques 7-27

7-8b Scuba Entry Techniques (continued) 7-28

7-9 Clearing a Face Mask 7-31

7-10a Scuba Hand Signals 7-33

7-10b Scuba Hand Signals (continued) 7-35

8-3 MK 3 MOD 0 Configuration 1 8-7

8-4 MK 3 MOD 0 Configuration 2 8-8

8-5 MK 3 MOD 0 Configuration 3 8-8

8-6 MK 3 MOD 1 Lightweight Dive System 8-9

8-7 ROPER Cart 8-10

8-8 Flyaway Air Diving System (FADS) 1 8-11

8-9 Control Console Assembly of FADS III 8-12

8-10 HP Compressor Assembly (top); MP Compressor Assembly (bottom) 8-18

8-11 Communicating with Line-Pull Signals 8-22

8-12 Surface Decompression 8-34

9-1 Air Diving Chart 9-4

9-2 Graphic View of a Dive with Abbreviations 9-5

9-3 Completed Air Diving Chart 9-9

9-4 Completed Air Diving Chart 9-10

9-5 Completed Air Diving Chart 9-13

9-6 Completed Air Diving Chart 9-15

9-7 Repetitive Dive Flowchart 9-16

9-8 Repetitive Dive Worksheet 9-17

9-9 Dive Profile 9-19

9-10 Completed Repetitive Dive Worksheet 9-20

9-11 Dive Profile for Repetitive Dive 9-21

9-12 Dive Profile 9-24

9-13 Dive Profile 9-26

9-14 Dive Profile 9-29

9-15 Dive Profile 9-30

9-16 Completed Repetitive Dive Worksheet 9-31

9-17 Dive Profile 9-32

9-18 Dive Profile 9-33

9-19 Dive Profile 9-35

9-20 Completed Repetitive Dive Worksheet 9-36

9-21 Dive Profile 9-37

9-22 Worksheet for Diving at Altitude 9-44

9-23 Completed Worksheet for Diving at Altitude 9-46

9-24 Completed Chart for Dive at Altitude 9-47

9-25 Worksheet for Repetitive Dive at Altitude 9-48

9-26 Completed Worksheet for Repetitive Dive at Altitude 9-50

9-27 Completed Chart for Dive at Altitude 9-51

9-28 Completed Chart for Repetitive Dive at Altitude 9-52

10-1 NITROX Diving Chart 10-6

10-2 NITROX Scuba Bottle Markings 10-8

10-3 Nitrox O2 Injection System 10-10

10-4 LP Air Supply NITROX Membrane Configuration 10-12

10-5 HP Air Supply NITROX Membrane Configuration 10-13

11-1 Ice Diving with Scuba 11-3

11-2 Typical Ice Diving Worksite 11-9

13-1 Searching Through Aircraft Debris on the Ocean Floor 13-5

13-2 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Deep Drone 13-7

13-3 Dive Team Brief for Divers 13-11

13-5 FADS III Mixed Gas System (FMGS) 13-13

13-6 FMGS Control Console Assembly 13-14

14-1 HeO2 Diving Chart 14-6

14-2 In-Water Decompression Dive Profile for a 249 fsw/:18 Dive 14-7

14-3 HeO2 Diving Chart 14-9

14-4 Normal Surface Decompression Dive Profile for a 249 fsw/:18 Dive 14-10

14-5 HeO2 Diving Chart 14-12

14-6 Emergency Surface Decompression Dive Profile for a 249 fsw/:18 Dive 14-13

14-7 HeO2 Diving Chart 14-18

15-1 Typical Personnel Transfer Capsule Exterior 15-2

15-2 MK 21 MOD 0 with Hot Water Suit, Hot Water Shroud, and Come-Home Bottle 15-6

15-3 MK 22 MOD 0 with Hot Water Suit, Hot Water Shroud, and Come-Home Bottle 15-6

15-4 NEDU's Ocean Simulation Facility (OSF) 15-7

15-5 NEDU's Ocean Simulation Facility Saturation Diving Chamber Complex 15-7

15-6 NEDU's Ocean Simulation Facility Control Room 15-8

15-7 Naval Submarine Medical Research Library (NSMRL) 15-8

15-8 PTC Placement Relative to Excursion Limits 15-30

15-9 Saturation Decompression Sickness Treatment Flow Chart 15-38

16-1 Mixing by Cascading 16-3

16-2 Mixing with Gas Transfer System 16-4

17-1 MK 16 MOD 0 Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA 17-1

17-2 MK 16 MOD 0 UBA Functional Block Diagram 17-2

17-3 UBA Breathing Bag Acts to Maintain the Diver's Constant Buoyancy by Responding

Counter to Lung Displacement 17-4

17-4 Underwater Breathing Apparatus MK 16 MOD 0 17-9

17-5 Single Surface-Tended Diver 17-17

17-6 MK 16 MOD 0 Dive Record Sheet 17-20

17-7 Dive Worksheet for Repetitive 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure Oxygen in

Nitrogen Dives 17-26

17-8 EBS Type 1 17-30

17-9 EBS II Major Assemblies and Ancillary Equipment 17-31

17-10 Full Face Mask MK 24 MOD 0 17-32

17-11 Total EBS Volume Requirements for Decompression 17-33

17-12 MK 16 UBA General Characteristics 17-43

18-1 Diver in Draeger LAR V UBA 18-1

18-2 Gas Flow Path of the MK 25 18-10

18-3 Example of Transit with Excursion 18-14

21-2 Emergency Medical Equipment for TRCS 21-32

21-3 Treatment of Decompression Sickness Occurring while at Decompression Stop in the Water 21-36

21-4 Decompression Sickness Treatment from Diving or Altitude Exposures 21-37

21-5 Treatment of Arterial Gas Embolism or Decompression Sickness 21-38

21-6 Treatment of Symptom Recurrence 21-39

21-7 Treatment Table 5 21-40

21-8 Treatment Table 6 21-41

21-9 Treatment Table 6A 21-42

21-10 Treatment Table 4 21-43

21-11 Treatment Table 7 21-44

21-12 Treatment Table 8 21-45

21-13 Treatment Table 9 21-46

21-14 Air Treatment Table 1A 21-47

21-15 Air Treatment Table 2A 21-48

21-16 Air Treatment Table 3 21-49

22-1 Double Lock Steel Recompression Chamber 22-2

22-2 Double-Lock Aluminum Recompression Chamber 22-3

22-3 ARS 50 Class Double Lock Recompression Chamber 22-4

22-4 Fleet Modernized Double-Lock Recompression Chamber 22-5

22-5 Transportable Recompression Chamber System (TRCS) 22-7

22-6 Transportable Recompression Chamber (TRC) 22-7

22-7 Transfer Lock (TL) 22-8

22-8 Fly Away Recompression Chamber (FARCC) 22-9

22-9 Fly Away Recompression Chamber 22-10

22-10 Fly Away Recompression Chamber Life Support Skid 22-11

22-11a Recompression Chamber Predive Checklist (sheet 1 of 2) 22-13

22-11b Recompression Chamber Predive Checklist (sheet 2 of 2) 22-14

22-12a Recompression Chamber Postdive Checklist (sheet 1 of 2) 22-20

22-12b Recompression Chamber Postdive Checklist (sheet 2 of 2) 22-21

22-13a Pressure Test for USN Recompression Chambers (sheet 1 of 3) 22-22

22-13b Pressure Test for USN Recompression Chambers (sheet 2 of 3) 22-23

22-13c Pressure Test for USN Recompression Chambers (sheet 3 of 3) 22-24

5A-1a Neurological Examination Checklist (sheet 1 of 2) 5A-3

5A-1b Neurological Examination Checklist (sheet 1 of 2) 5A-4

5A-2a Dermatomal Areas Correlated to Spinal Cord Segment (sheet 1 of 2) 5A-11

5A-2b Dermatomal Areas Correlated to Spinal Cord Segment (sheet 2 of 2) 5A-12

5B-1 Pressure Points 5B-3

5B-2 Applying a Tourniquet 5B-5

5C-1 Types of Sharks 5C-2

5C-2 Killer Whale 5C-3

5C-3 Barracuda 5C-4

5C-4 Moray Eel 5C-5

5C-5 Venomous Fish 5C-6

5C-6 Highly Toxic Fish 5C-8

5C-7 Stingray 5C-9

5C-8 Coelenterates 5C-10

5C-9 Octopus 5C-12

5C-10 Cone Shell 5C-15

5C-11 Sea Snake 5C-16

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